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The design and use of a quarry materials inventory. 6th Conference of REAAA. Kuala Lumpur 4-10 March 1990

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Department For I J~~~ I l J ~~ International TITLE: by: The design and use of a road materials inventory P J Beaven, J Cook and B Moestapha Overseas Centre Transport Research Laboratory Crowthorne Berkshire RG45 6AU United Kingdom PAI 230190 Beaven, P J, J Cook and B Moestapha, 1990. The design and use of a road materials inventory. In: REAAA. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of REAAA, Kuala Lumpur, 4-10 March 1990. Kuala Lumpur: Road Engineering Association of Asia and Australasia. THE DESIGN AND USE OF A ROAD MATERIALS INVENTORY BY P J BEAVEN, TRRL, J R COOK, Frank Graham International Ltd BENNY MOESTAPHA, IRE, Bandung ABSTRACT Any highway engineering project demands information on the availability, quality and costs of road-making materials. This paper describes a pilot road materials inventory for West Javai, which combined a research project to investigate the most efficient techniques to be used with a full survey for one Indonesian province. A preliminary desk study identified existing sources most of which were visited and classified on site, using special forms designed to provide ea~sy entry of the information into a computer database. Representative samples were taken for testing and recommendations on their potential use similarly codified. All samples were classified according to geology and terrain units. The paper explains how such a data store can be used for road planning and construction projects, giving examples of data extracted f-rom the computer database in a format suited to a District Engineer. It concludes with a description of how the study could be extended to other areas to produce an integrated national inventory. INTRODUCTION 1 Accurate project planning depends on having access to reliable information presented in a suitable format. For highway engineering projects the availability and costs of road maling materials is one of the required information sets. At the national planning level this may be required to estimate the costs of road building needed to support development projects. At the local planning level the information on materials will -be,-us~ed to-.prepare,-feasibility surveys. ,.it may alIso be used to identify regional problems the solution of which is the development of new quarries or processing plants. At the local level the highway engineer needs to know where to find materials for construction and maintenance works. 2 This wide range of objectives has led to a variety of approaches, ranging from the recording of laboratory test data, through surveys of separate quarries, to resource surveys based on material type or geographic region. In. addition to this, the rapid development of computing systems has caused a reappraisal of the implementation of inventories. The original systems were report or card based but in the 1970s there was a move to using computer storage, often using specially written FORTRAN programs. The increase in power of microcomputers has been followed by the development of special database programs, of which the dBASE family is most widely known. The situation now exists whereby a materials inventory can be installed on a personal computer and the project described in this paper was designed to establish the usefulness and limitations of such a system. BACKGROUND TO PROJECT 3 ~~The Institute of Road.Engieering (IRE), which is the road research institute of the Departemen Pekerjaan Umium (D)PU) in Indonesia, has been collaborating with the Transport and Road Research Laboratory UK (TRRL) for the past 10 years. As part of this work an IBRD) funded training and research programme (TARP) was established in 1988-89. The two main research topics of the TARP were the development of a road materials inventory and investigations of bituminous surfacings. The training objective included both formal instruction and practical counterpart training. The road materials inventory was supervised by an experienced engineering geologist recruited as a materials specialist. 4 The objectives of the Road Material Inventory (RMI) project, as viewed within the context of the TARP as a whole, were perceived to be as follows:- a) A training objective to transfer technical knowledge and practical experience to the relevant IRE professional staff. b) A theoretical objective to develop and examine the validity of a methodology for the assembly of a Road Materials Inventory. c) A practical objective, to assemble a pilot Road Materials Inventory of West Java and part of South Sumatera. 5 This paper describes the creation of the pilot inventory and considers how such a study could be extended on a national scale. The main pilot study was based in the local province of West Java to minimise travel. This was appropriate for the development of the system and made the training and supervision of field teams easier. However it was recognised that it would be necessary to extend the system when used in a different ter-rain, .type -and.- so.-..the. project was. designed to include a preliminary survey of South Sumatera. 6 The West Java RMI embodies the concept that compiling an inventory of material sources and properties provides an effective tool for use by road engineers, planners and researchers. Such an inventory consists of locations recorded as individual sources of material and is not assembled as a resource survey of a particular geographical or geological entity. It may be argued in the. Indonesian context that a project such as the RMI provides a starting point for other forms of resource survey. PROJECT PREPARATION AND) PLANNING 7 Following on from the TARP terms of reference a basic project strategy was devised and is summarised in: the following five main elements:- a) Desk study. Collection of available data, including maps and information on known source locations. This included preliminary visits to kabupaten (district) offices. Systematic collation of data for a field verification programme of 464 sources. b) Field verification. Systematic collection of data from all identified current sources of aggregate using pro-forma field sheets in conjunction with photographs and sketches. Collection of samples for testing. c) Laboratory testing. Undertaking of a selected range of suitable aggregate index tests on recovered samples. -d) Database assembly. Collation and cross-checking of all field and laboratory data. Formation of RMI database system and keyboard entry of validated data. Compilation of maps. e) Data dissemination. Compilation of kabupaten manuals together with relevant guides to their use. Distribution of manuals in conjunction with a provincial seminar held at IRE. 8 This strategy was put into effect utilising engineers and geologists from IRE backed up by the materials specialist with technical computing support from TRRL. The interrelationship of the above stages is illustrated in Figure 1. In developing this strategy a number of constraints, in addition to those embodied in the Project Terms of Reference, had to be taken into consideration:- a) The training objective of TARP. b) The 12 month project time scale. c) The technical experience of the assigned IRE staff. 9 These constraints combined to put the following limitations on the West Java inventory:- a) Only current sources of aggregate would be considered. b) The inventory would not include sources to be used primarily as fill material. c) No subsurface exploration or instrunflented survey work was undertaken. d) As much as possible of the technical work was undertaken by IRE staff. 10 A review of project and likely user requirements led, in the light of previous experience, to the establishment of the following general headings under which field data would be gathered:- a) -Source Locations. b) Physical..Environment. Figure 1 RMI Activity flow chart [ c) Material Quality. d) Material Quantity. e) Material Costs. 11 In order to facilitate the collection of the varied and extensive data anticipated under these headings, three standard field forms, Location, Material and Product, were designed such that the majority of information could be entered by choosing answers to questions from lists of options included in a field manual. This purpose written field manual contained relevant definitions, tables and figures for use by the field personnel. Typical field forms used in the field verification are presented as Figures 2 and 3. The separate field forms generally relate to data files whilst the various characteristics on each form relate to data variables. 12 It was planned that this procedure would result in a data gathering programme which would be compatible with the following guidelines:- a) The collection of relevant information. b) The collection of the data in a form that reduced~ operator bias as much as possible. c) The collection of the data in a format that could be relatively easily transferred to microcomputer spreadsheets and databases. d) The systematic collection and numbering of samples. 13 Desk study data collection was undertaken principally in Indonesia and consisted of acquiring available data on existing sources and collecting together the necessary geological and topographic maps and air photographs. 14 Towards the end of the desk study period the detailed planning and organisation of the fieldwork phase was given close consideration. This progranmning took into account the following factors:- a) The numbers of identified potential sources. b) The composition of the assigned Road Materials Group. c) The high priority given to professional training. d) The limiting time scale. e) The necessity to do fieldwork in South Sumatera. f) The lessons learnt from the field trials. 15 This detailed fieldwork planning was doneo~n a kabupaten by kabupaten basis and resulted in the production of a series of monthly programmes that gave the field teams identifiable work targets. FIELD AND LABORATORY VERIFICATION 16 The adopted strategy required that all identified sources of aggregate in.West Java must be visited and verified by field teams. The basic approach to the fieldwork was to use three teams to visit, sample 1 CI,.-. 0) UI) a) 4- -0 0 0. a) E. LL 0)" r4 1 0 - - o 0~~o 0 0 CL 00 C V 0 ~~~0 0 0 -K C 0 -0C 4.4 0 ~4 < 0 40 . 'm.4 0K. 0 La U .1 c ' x a 0 cl 0 0 4 0 CL 0 1 - 1 0 1 Uo ~ 0"-V" -t-. o a~~~~~~0 ~~~~~~~~ 0~~~~~~~~~ 4- C 404-000 - - 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . - . - - - - 1 C() a,a, U) 4- a, Cl. E0 Cl. U-1. and describe the identified aggregate sources. Each team consisted of a geologist and an engineer together with a driver and a four wheel- drive vehicle. In West Java the teams worked in the field on a two weeks on, one. week off, basis so that there was always one team mn the office and two in the field at any one time.- 17 The office team reviewed and collated the work of its previous two field weeks and prepared maps and the detailed programme for the next period. 18 In addition to visiting those sources noted from the desk study data collection, the field teams located and verified all other relevant sources identified from local knowledge. An additional 206 locations were identified in this way. Some overlapping data from existing inventories reduced the net increase to 192 locations, which meant an additional 40% of fieldwork. 19 In order to set limits on the inventory the following criteria were adopted as prerequisites for including sources:- a) The location had to be a source of fine or coarse aggregate that either had been or was currently operational. b) The location either had to be an identified DPU source or have reserves in excess of 10,00Gm 3. Adjacent locations that could be considered as a single geological entity were combined into one source. Sources were not divided on the basis of ownership boundaries. 20 At each identified location, after an initial walkover survey, the field teams completed the three field forms, drew relevant site sketches and took photographs of site layouts and key features. Typical completed field forms are presented as Figures 2 and 3. 21 In addition to the field teams there was a management or consultancy team consisting of the materials specialist and the IRE counterpart. Their role was to visit the field teams and advise them on problems, cross check the data collection, advise on day to day planning and generally act as logistic support. This team split its time between office and field. 22 .A-nprtn -l~a-dniidfra liaison-engineer between the field teams and the laborafory. This engineer hadl responsibility for transporting samples back to IRE, registering them and assigning relevant tests. In general he acted as a link between the field teams and the senior laboratory technician. His role also included the monitoring of the progress of the testing programme. 23 The above organisation was drawn up in such a manner that the IRE staff could undertake as much of the project work themselves in terms of planning and achieving team targets. The activities of the consultancy team ensured that advice and on the job technical advice was readily available. - ~~Table 1 Laboratory testing: RM'vI West Java Test Type No. of Tests Water absorption 1309 Specific Gravity 1309 Los Angeles Abrasion (LAA) 699 Agg. crushing value (ACV) 364 Agg. impact value (AIV) 739 10% Fines 51 Elonga'tion/flakiness 537 Soundness 38 Agg. stripping 382 Organic classification 453 Point load 67 Grading 786 Density/moisture content 26 CBR 26 Atterberg limits 15 24 The general approach to testing was to assign large numbers of a few standard aggregate index and grading tests, and a more limited number of other tests. This approach has proved successful in supplying statistically viable data on groups of locations defined by material type or terrain. The amount of testing undertaken is summarised in Table 1. DATABASE ASSEMBLY AND DISSEMINATION 25 The TARP Road Materials Inventory of West Java was assembled at IRE as a database consisting of the following:- a) Original field and laboratory result sheets. b) Computer database. c) Computer data base Output reports. d) Field'sketches. e) Kabupaten manuals. f) Photographs. 26 This database was set up to comply with the following perceived guidelines:- a) It must contain relevant information. b) The information should be accurate. ) Database information should be easily accessible by engineers or planners. d) Database information should be held on computer hard disk. e) Hard copy print out of the computer information should be available. f) The database should be capable of being updated. 27 The variable uses to which a materials inventory may be put requires effective and flexible reporting and data dissemination procedures. The use of a computerised database provides this flexibility which, in the case of the current inventory, has been enhanced by the use of the R&R Relational Report Writer program in conjunction with the dBASE mH PLUS system. The data assembly and checking procedures are summarised in Figure 4. The R&R Relational Report Writer program is currently used as the principal means of extracting and reporting on information contained in the RMI database. A number of standard report templates were created for use in the initial reporting phase; subsequently a further suite of templates has been added as aids to research. 28 The interrogation of the database is greatly facilitated by the use of the R&R Relational Report Writer program. In general terms, this program accesses the data files to list sources that comply with conditions imposed by the user. To illustrate the wide range of queries that may be drawn up, some typical examples are listed below:- a) List all sources in West Java that produce class 1 coarse aggregate. b) List all sources in Cirebon that are adjacent to road link number 074. c) List all sources on the Cimanuk river that produce good quality sand with lesS then 5% fine material. d) List all good quality bedrock aggregate sources in Bandung with a water absorbtion less than 3%. e) List all sources with proven reserves greater than 100,00Om 3 in an area (defined by co-ordinates). 29 Such lists of sources can be printed out with details on pre- programmed report forms. Examples of such report forms are presented as Figures 5 and 6. 30 Kabupaten summary sheets for West Java can be drawn up and an example is presented as Figure 6. Such sheets list the aggregate sources for each. kabupaten together, with the main elements of information with respect to location, quality and quantity. For farther information and more detail on particular sources reference can be made to the aggregate source reports within Kabupaten Material Manuals. 31 These kabupaten summary sheets are in turn summarised in the West Java provincial summary sheet which presents the resources of each kabupaten. These sheets provide the technical information presented in the main report for this part of the TARP. 32 Frhrdevelopment work 'has also been undertaken at TRRL with respect to the system required to manage the computerised database Field forms (CS) Laboratory test results (CS) Field work check (CS) Map reference check (MS) HData entry to spreadsheet (CS) Field data entry to database (CS) Convert files to Check data database form (MS) entry (MS) Output hard copy of Fir~st correlation field data (MS) check (MS) Corrections to database (CS) Field sketches (CS) Cross check (MS) Output hard copy of Kabupaten and corrected data (MS) Location maps (CS) Final correlation Cross checks (MS) check (MS) Final corrections to database (MS/CS) Hard copy of summary reports(MS) Collate reports and manuals (MS/CS) CS Counterpart staff MS Materials specialist Dissemination (MS/'CS) -1.. Figure 4 Cross checking and correlation procedure for RMI database 1 1 .i .I-.-h g ,c. ,c. 1 0' 01- 01 - 7 1 -' a,1 --0 00 ----- , cO 01 0 00aO oa 1 01 1 1 000 - a to 1 Z_!I- 1 _!I- 1 -- = =I I I~ I ~21~ -i, 1-0- - a 0 to 1 0 C- I t o I t o I t o I t I a I o o o o t t t t o o oa-- ---t o o I t o I t o I t t o I o t --- 1 0 ooo-1-- -- aa aI1 ~i aI=C 1az1 a: .4-(L)a1) U) L. E E CO .4-- c) E 10 L. c) a = .= I 1 zI-I I 1 1 "::t ` -'I-' T g-. ---%2: C ` 11 .. -z g- j- '2f- s! e -z  1=1 _ -7 --- -Z.- ' 51 El -Z- -j- .s! .1 . -- t.-t2 , l- f - te A j. 9 2 t: - ;c -- 9:f:g ---2-51 c -1 ... ----- -9: -1 e .1 1 c z c.Z l- te li -3 X :., z z 2- s :; :21 9 1l!'_j t-- = !p: Z -Z: :9::;=  jg --.z! -- 2 .;z - .,:.,;Aids.,; "-: "! 11 -: 'It ,T-- -- Z. t -- -- -- ------ i-.;tli -i. 2 -- I.j z cI.i 2 ;g :!E: m 2 1 1i = :2711 2'i 4 Zf1 2 P::11; Ii 0 :E:3 t = 1 -1 E! 1 R 1 z 1 t Co -,C C ; 2 1 t;;C> E! .9 -- I,! C A C -- i -- i -- 1 -- i = 1 -if 1 -U; 1 !E ---E- -9 -7-- 11 2! t! t:f [Ci.C C  -g 1 9E. !EA-'It I,: Ii 2 zi 1 - lil:z!~-g -tg.t 9 1% lli lz! 01)01) :CO ~E r~j, ~,C) :5 I*- 0 :a iE (b a) U- .1 -t.5 --t;lt- kt! l- 2; 1 tGaV1 . %Et tz ... t 111: .z-9 e- -1 -- 2 9 X 1 - 1 - i T -tf.U; --11 --2 E 51 1 - 1 111 - Co, C C~ C - 5 2JI z;;C> a; 1.  :E: 2= IC-'It T T C t :z: 9 E!tt:z- =2 -.1 11 Cg C I = I C I CI 91 = 9 n='I_ -t -7 1 - 1:2 Z1t.' C t-- t 12; ,2; :Z7 - j - tf g- -2 9 427- l! z; 9 z- l- Ii 21 t:'Z! l; 1t W111 1 1 ;:.L,1 L,i:21 - s 1 t 2 i EZ tf 1 1  1 -- !Q t: 9 tt 2m: 5 Z.1 tt: -C- ... i1Ztt E t! t,X g; 2 :z t m 11 il.a effectively. Additional training has been given to IRE staff by TRRL on aspects of this system including a course at IRE. DATA ANALYSIS AN]) TERRAIN EVALUATION 33 Analysis of the data recovered from the TARP RMI is continuing at TRR-L, with particular attention being given to the potential correlation of aggregate type and quality with terrain. 34 Preliminary work has concentrated on aggregate properties in relation to material types. Table 2 indicates the range of materials encountered and their potential quality as sources of aggregate. Figures 7 and 8 present the numbers and sizes of the two largest groups of locations; those containing igneous bedrock and those~ containing alluvial, or terrace and related materials. The preponderance of andesitic/basaltic materials in both these groups is reflected in the their high potential for good quality coarse aggregate. Only the laharic (Ac) materials have a poor potential in this regard. 35 The ability to achieve this potential quality will largely rely on methods of production. The majority of aggregate sources in West Java still rely on labour intensive hand extraction and hand crushing methods in relatively small locations. From the database it can be seen that in total only 10% of the quarries are equipped with crushers. A more detailed study shows that there is a difference related to source type; 17% of the hard rock quarries have crushers whereas they occur in only 5% of the alluvial/terrace quarries. 36 Alluvial and terrace related materials are currently the main source of fine aggregate in West Java. The majority of these sources have no adequate screening facilities and this, in conjunction with the rounded to sub-rounded nature of most of the alluvial sand, produces less than top quality fine aggregate which may, nevertheless, be adequate for most road construction needs. 37 The coarser alluvial and terrace sources have the potential to produce both fine and coarse aggregate provided production methods are capable of removing poorer quality material that is frequently contained in, and masked by, the good material. This poor material may frequently be contained. .with..the .smaller. sizes-of .material,. as .indicated by an analysis of water absorption against original sample size (Figure 9) 38 The current RMI deals only with current aggregate locations and a major aspect of future work would require adapting the pilot study procedures to include a methodology for materials exploration. Terrain evaluation is a potentially powerful aid in extrapolating available materials information and has been successfully used in materials exploration for many years (Beaven and Lawrance, 1982). In the case of the current project, terrain evaluation procedures are being researched with respect to potential extensfions of the'RMII. ' 0N -0 -0 N. in 0'2 00 ~' N: 00' 0 in 0 in -400 0' N -in 0 C .0 ' ' N. 0 4 4 0 CO i 0' -~ 1 00000000 N in000000000 0 in 4 000000~0in0 W .- O in- 0 00 N 0 E0 3- Z 0J.1 4 00 U 1 0 '.Q .4. r - 41 4kU 00 1 El>0 0U 0. .4V .44 O .3 ---U>. U 0 . JLiOWU 0 340.4 El.3 U1 00 00- W 00 >,..U.. 3 0 0-40.0U 0 U - 0 V V 0a A m0i40 9 0 .0 10a001 .0 14- j1. 000.0a aV 0 0 Ea0 z F. -0 20 a10 0 r0 0U j0 aC0 z 1.m U tUm zU 40 W 4 40h-I 410 F.0 o 0 0 N - 0 4 0 in - in 0R0 0 413 0 - 4 -0 0 ~ 0 '0 '0 - o in in in i N i i; in i in 4 n 0, 0 0n 0 0, 00 0, 0 0l 0 40 .0 0 0 0 0, 40 C, 10 0 0 0 C, 0 '0~ 0 0 c41 4 1 4 10- . - I a . 0 0a 1 V1 40 .4 0 = 0 Li 13 - 0 40 is 4 0 0 U -a 0 a o 0 0. 0 m 0 0 0 " 40W0 04.0 4040 .0 U 0 0 01.1 00 0 00. 0 0 a 0 0' 0 40 01 a 'I F. -11J 1 0 ' 1 2 3 4 S Water absorption(%) Figure 7 :Proven and potential material reserves -igneous bedrock Volume (cubic metres) '10.000 t0.000-25,000 25.000-50.000 50.000-100.000 Status 100.000-250.000 m proen 250.000-500,000 Potential 500.000-1.000,000 1.000,000-2.500,000 '2,500.000 0 50 100 150 200 Number or source locations (N * 218) Figure 8 :Proven and potential material reserves -alluvial/terrace deposits volume (cubic metres) '10.000 10,000-25.000 25.000-50,000 50,000-100.000 sau 100.000-250,000 Poa 250.000-500,000 Poeta 500,000-1.000,000 1,000,000-2,500.000 '2.500.000 0 50 100 150 200 Number of source locations (N 388) Figure 9 :Comparison of water absorptions for differing original clast sizes; alluvial/terrace deposits. 6 7 a 44) 4-4 41J -4 U, E -4 4-40 U, 39 At the time of the current research a terrain evaluation of Java had niot been completed. It was decided therefore to take a representative section of West Java and produce a preliminary terrain unit map based on available geological and topographic maps in conjunction with the relevant Landsat images. R&R Relational Report Writer was used to search for all aggregate locations within the trial area; these were subsequently plotted on the map and the relevant terrain units entered into the database. R&R Relational Report Writer was then further utilised to collate aggregate information with respect to terrain units. Relevant material and aggregate quality data collated with respect to terrain units are presented in Tables 3 and 4. 40 Although this terrain and aggregate research is ongoing at TRRL some preliminary observations may be made on the occurrence of aggregate sources with respect to terrain. a) The quality of potential bedrock aggregate sources is directly influenced by geology; which also influences surface morphology. In addition 14 the condition of the bedrock will have been influenced by weathering and hence by terrain. b) The position of bedrock quarries within potential sources is influenced by accessibility, which is likely to be a function of the detailed terrain unit morphology (land facets). c) The characteristics of alluvial or terrace aggregate sources are a function of the. bedrock materials from which they were derived and hence may be a function of adjacent terrain units in addition to their own (Table 5). Table 5 Median field gradings for alluvial/terrace gravels in a range of differing terrains. Unit Estimated Field Grading() No. Bldr Cobble Gravel Sand Fines 7 35 30 20 10 5 9 20 35 30 10 5 27 5 10 20 60 5 3 0 0 5 90 5 d) The exact location of alluvial reserves is a function of detailed river morphology. In the case of the main Cimianuk river system in the trial area the availability of access routes is a governing factor. 41 Terrain evaluation may be used to indicate areas likely to contain potential material reserves. Extrapolation of data from known sources in conjunction with terrain evaluation may give additional information as to potential quality and uses. 42 For their effective use in materials surveys a terrain evaluation should take into account geology as well as morphology. Work with the West Java trial area and the existing Bakosurtinal maps for Sumatera has indicated that the latter would be better suited to materials survey if the geological emphasis wa's greater. In contrast the preliminary work on West Java would be improved with a greater morphological input, particularly with respect to alluvial and old river terrace forms. 43 Work undertaken within the West Java trial area has shown the value of air photography in identifying potentially useful lava and laharic flows in this terrain. Work has also indicated the extent of potential alluvial and terrace sources. USERS OF RMI 44 Users of the West Java inventories fall into three broad groups. Planners. Planners can use information on the location of major material sources as a factor in route alignment decisions and general infrastructure development. Information on cost and location can be used to work up realistic figures for material and haulage costs. Engineers. Engineers can use road materials inventory information in a number of different ways. Design engineers may be able look at the types of material available and adopt road designs compatible with them, to produce more cost- effective end products. District road engineers, consultants and contractors may use the database to find and assess local materials for their immediate requirements. Researchers. Researchers may use the database information to undertake studies into a whole range of practical road material oriented topics. For instance, the relationships between ...-mat-eriai-,erfor-na~nce, .-ter~rai~n and..geology.-can .be studied to provide a rational methodology for developing new sources. The accumulated laboratory information could lead to further research into testing procedures..relevant to the governing materials and climate. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE 45 The TARP inventory project has laid the foundation for further road and construction materials work being undertaken at IRE. Opportunities derive from the use of the database information, from the adaptation of the systematic methodology and from the results of the experience gained by the IRE staff. 46 The possible-areas of further work fall into four related fields:- a) Implementation of comprehensive database management and information dissemination system for the RMI1 at WR. b) The extehsion of the current RMVI to form a national inventory. c) The adaption of the methodology to consider detailed resource surveys and assessments. d) Aggregate research 47 The TARP pilot study has confirmed the feasibility, and potential usefulness, of undertaking a road materials inventory on a provincial basis. It is a logical step to consider extending this to the other provinces of Indonesia and, in the process, to take into account potential as well as actual sources of aggregate. It is considered that the establishment of a framework for a national inventory and database would be an effective first stage in this extension. 48 One possible way of developing this framework has been discovered, using the land system maps which have been recently completed for the whole of Indonesia. These maps were prepared by the Departemen Transmigrasi to give a consistent basis for the regional planning processes (Wall et al., 1988). They were used in the preliminary survey of South Sumatera. 49 A provincial data bank of existing aggregate sources may be used as a starting point for more detailed resource assessments. These may be applied at individual road project level or comprise more general surveys of particular material types or geographical entities. These studies, involving both actual and potential sources, may seek to make more detailed recommendations as to material production and use. 50 The existing database provides a basis for executing further research on the more detailed identification of aggregate properties in Indonesia. This work could involve examining current material standards used in Indonesia and assessing regional trends in the availability of materials, production technology and costs. 5 1 An .inventory -such :.as t-he ,current -RMI-is-. a resource that requires continuous support. Unless given this support in terms of updating of information and user feedback its usefulness will gradually diminish. 52 Information relating to the various data fields will change on differing time scales; and some are unlikely to change at all. Changes in some data fields will have important knock-on effects on others, and thus can be considered key factors to be monitored. Examples of such key factors are as follows:- a) Operational- or development status b) Extraction method c) Production method The updating of the RMI may be achieved in a number of ways, broadly outlined below. Total provincial resurvey. This is likely to be expensive and time consuming, but could be part of, for example, a complete provincial resource survey. Such a total resurvey might be considered on a 10-15 year cycle. Partial resurvey or project update. This may form part of more detailed route corridor assessments or as a consequence of road projects being undertaken. The involvement and feedback from aggregate users is essential in this process. Ad hoc location update. This would be based on kabupaten and local use of aggregate sources and requires good communication between kabupatens and the managers of the database. At this level it is suggested that whenever sources are visited, perhaps by DPU or Bina Marga engineers, obvious changes. are noted and forwarded to the database managers or held until information is collected on a regular basis. Table 6 Maintenance programme Source Reserves Rate Source Survey Work-out In, in/week Life Date Date (Months) 1 200 000 500 100 23.06.88 23.10.96 2 50 000 1 000 10 01.09.88 01.07.89 Maintenance update. This could be an updating programme based on the perceived working life of the sources and run using the database system. This is illustrated in table 6. 53 A maintenance programme could be devised to highlight automatically sources that have reached key stages in their proven working life -say a 25 or 50% depletion. The key input to this would be a knowledge at local level of any major changes in output rate. Because the current TAR-P inventories are held on a computerised database, changes may be easily made through the dBASE III PLUS editing procedures. 54 Asso~ciated. research ~on the rate of change of database information will lead to the more effective upkeep of future inventories; for example, the recharge capabilities of alluvial sources of sand, gravel and boulder during flood seasons. SUJMMVARY 55 A Road Materials Inventory methodology has been designed and tested in West Java and has indicated its potential usefulness as a tool for engineers, planners and researchers. Although its effectiveness will depend on feedback from users and continued regular updating, the methodology is considered suitable to expand the inventory to a national scale. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The results described in this paper were obtained from a joint study by the Indonesian Institute of Road Engineering, the Transport and Road Research Laboratory UK and T P O'Sullivan and Partners, Consulting Engineers. The assistance rendered by D J Savage (TRRL) with respect to the design and development of the computerised database is gratefully acknowledged. The paper is published with the permission of the Director of TRRL, Mr D F Cornelius, and the Director of IRE, Mr Soedarmanto Darmonegoro. dBASE Hi PLUS is a registered trademark of the Ashton-Tate Corporation. R&R Relational Report Writer is a registered trademark of Concentric Data Systems Incorporated. REFERENCES BEAVEN PJ and C J LAWR.ANCE (1982) Terrain evaluation for highwapy. planning and design. Department of the Environment Department of Transport, TRRL, Report SR 725. Crowthorne 1982 (Transport and Road Research Laboratory) WALL JRD), KUSABANDIO and SIPAHUTAR D (1988) Land resource planning in Indonesia. 3rd Southeast Asian Survey Congress Bali, 1988 CROWN COPYRIGHT Any views expressed in this paper are not necessarily those of the Department of Transport. Extracts from the text may be reproduced, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged. 1 1