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The status and use of the Indonesian a national roadmaking materials inventory. Fifth Annual Conference on Road Engineering, Bandung, Indonesia, 9-11 May 1994

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TRANSPORT RESEARCH LABORATORY TITLE by The status and use of the Indonesia national road-making materials inventory B Moestapha, P J Beaven, T Heditono and D J Savage Overseas Centre Transport Research Laboratory Crowthorne Berkshire United Kingdom IA 11/ MUSTAFA, B, HEDITONO, T, BEAVEN, P J and SAVAGE, DiJ (1 994). The formation and use of a national roadmaking materials inventory in Indonesia. In. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Conference on Rood Engineering, Bondung, Indonesia, 9-1 1 May 1994. THE, STATUS AND USE OF TI-IE INDONESIAN NATIONAL ROAD-MIAKING M1ATERIALS INVENTORY Bcnny Moestapha, P J Beaven, Tonny [Icditono and D J Savage ABSTRACT An inventory of existing information on road materials sources from all of Indonesia's provincces has been assembled and entered into a custom built microcomputer database held at the Insulirte of' Road Engineering in Banidung. More detailed information has been collected by, surveyine and testing samples recovered fromn most of the workinig or recently disused quarries in West Java with additional samples from five other provinces. This paper describes the formation of the inventory and explains how it could be used to improve road planning throughout Indonesia. Suggestions are also given on the further development of the inventory by extending the detailed surveying to other provinces. L.O INTRODUCTION The National Road Materials Inventory (NRMI) database has been set-up as a data storage and retrieval system for natural road-making materials in Indonesia. The development of the NRM4I formed part of the Geotechnical Engineering Programme which in turn was part of the 1BRD) funded Technical Assistance and Research Training Project, Second Phase (TARP II). This paper is intended as a guide to the use and development of the NRN4I. It describes the current status of the NRMI and its applications to road network planning and construction programmes. It also presents the way in which the current framework may be developed into a fully operational and practical system at national and provincial level and indicates topics of further development in the general area of road-making materials management and research. 2.0 CURRE NT STATUS OF NRMI 2.1I General Description The National Road Materials Inventory (NRMI) currently exists as a framework of related computer database files held within a managemeint and operating system. This database is backed by an archive of original data, photographs, reports and relevant maps. Data within the NRMI have been assembled by three principal procedures. The Provincial Desk Study Inventory (PDS1) survey, collected available data at deskstudy level from provincial offices throughout the country. The Provincial Road-Making Materials Inventory (PRNMI) surveys, under-taken by IRE research staff, collected detailed information by visiting individual materials locations and filling out a scries of standard data sheets. The Detailed Sources Assessment (DSA) surveys are intended to provide more accurate data utilising site Investigation techniques. 2.2 Information Held Within the NRMI The NRMI is a database of information relating to existing or recently disused sources of road making aggregate. It covers both unconsolidated and bedrock. materials but does not contain data pertaining to sources or material primarily used as ear-thwork fill. The types of aggregate source data that are a contained within the database fall under the following main headings: El 3 * source location * source definition * material definition * material quantity * product definition * product cost Information is classified with reference to its mode of collection:.- Level I Data obtained through the PDSI programme a-nd largely uncorroborated by IRE staff. Level 2 Data obtained through PRMI programmes by IRE staff. Level 3 A strictly limited amount of DSA data obtained by detailed surveys sub-surface investigations undertaken by IRE staff. These levels of detail may also be related to a standard definition of resources and reserves where, In general terms,:- level I an ]inferred resource! reserve -PDSI data level 2 =an indicated resource/reserve ~PRMI and some PDSI dlata level 3 =a measured resource or reserve -DSA data. The PDSI surveys were initiated in order to form a foundation framework from which to bluild up the NRMI through increased numbers of PRMI surveys, which will eventually form its principal] data source. Tables I to 5 summarise the data types held under each heading by PRMI riles. In addition, important support information with respect 10 the status of the data is also held (Table 6). Information stored under the PDSI heading is summarised on Table 7. There are obvious problems with respect to the wide variability in the amounts and reliability of the PDSI data. In an effort to guide potential users in this regard the PDSI data is classified lin terms or relliablility (Table 8). The current status of the data held within the NRMI is summarised in Table 9. ThIs indicates that although aggregate source information is available for all provinces, the majority is at level I rather than level 2. In the next stage of the development, starting this year, It is intended io increase thie number of PRMI surveys in cooperation with provincial collection teams. The structure of this work will be based on the existing PDSI surveys. 4 L TABlLE 1 ScxURCE WK:XTION INuCF~T~a TABLE 2 SOU]RCE DEFINMON~ Source owners and opera toi siteopra tiona~l status Petodsofexcavation Method~s of processing site utilities, water, cl( General geology.~ Relevant eO.logi:R m Relevant 9aksutanl lay. Land sys tem code and landil Potential hydrological prx E n v i m e t a l i n p a c t Type andamounts of ovent Wkmface heichts TABLE 3 hJ1T.IAL DE~FlflTO T~ABLE 4 t'ATEP.AL OwnIT iiEstimate of pro~e reserves Estimate of tot~al re-serves (prov~ + potential) IIFielId evaluation of de e sen stira-nts:. physical II ~~~~~~~~~~hydrolo~gical II ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~~~eco T u c 5 Provia-ce Kecama tan Sou2rce nar~e and reference nuzrber Nearest Desa or Yampong Adjacent river (if relevant) Del init io of nearest link road Clainage of access road off that link Access c iditicrn and length Relevant topographic map Map reference, either U'fl grid or Iat/long. -ct-ricity etc A systen map -ormDbl ems xiren Material type Pe=cent-age of material types at each location Standard materials laboratory test results [Unconsolidated materials] Field estimation of rdx Particle/clast shpsaglr yand texture Particle/clasttye trnt ,posy Field estimates o iecat density roit ~e ad zmtso~etriusMatera eria mas srength ~a~ss struct-ure [Indurated materials] Detai-led bedrock type and texture Mineralogyweatherin- grade Typ~sand nts of deleterious material B~~~ massform Disconitinuity types, spacing. Block shape Mass strerqt-h and Schm~idt Rebo~und No. Effect of soaking on streng-th Estimate~s of material density and porosity .7lz5 Pk3DUC7 DETIN:T2ON kC,'Z~ ~ & e~ -.teof p40cn~ial usage EszImae of aa~ li ti ,'o~cessed eatcr1a shape, aqjularity £ ctr FTM-CCse~s'd e~i~ strca-£tb EstlIA e of P1ce~sed material. dansity. and porentty S .an..ao .reat te~s- resu4ltr pr s~ian rate Cost TAE P C SW ---,v ef ezece reurr~e: tea,. idenltxfication :Dtea Of Lrspectio1 Svstetn d'ates. ~~tor ta e o f s ur de V ez-.f i cat 1 .o es SL; e idc iicaticn Cocdea Data is held largely in a combination of codes a-nd numeric information within the databasc fiales. Full details of these database files together with their structure are contained within the NRII Manual. Summaries of the data currently held in the NRMI, together with relevant guides to thie codes, are included in the reports held at IRE. 6 W, Sur-vey r cfezce-r rn~zrb .4earces Des.. Or ra`Po-~ :.:cr~o of r-axest link road fŽ&noe of &arrss road off tha- !.-nik :c Usa Y. f -en d Hap e kr~ eier lAX sr LazSs cooe rysebeerma Matez-,i~l type Fezaph! c n~s Geceri1 prndx-ic:, types Refeze~rece to ',aS atorv dat.. ,Re. erE-cc to 50----Ce dat.a Adxst:irca dat.. Dare of da..a vah~ida:jom c~i E maca , CA,22rO.,,a- U- .-x acx fly ,.can:2rr a.z C:... to: ,. *a±.,.-.at - L.c.1IM C: a.c. ..t. y.Z2 ,.oleqe..1 ., C: ,.I.-,: d.c. p.....: UtJ.at.atI a..,... cc. Ld rn.ac .C Inc cco.n.t... C..o.a..L.C a. ..a.L. :OCt.:a I -C.. .Jta-* C C-ac 1.2 .,.a Case .0 ra-..: rn ..Caoa: ..-c t..-a12. C.... C.., prt..a: -ar. CrC r..t... Cc. $..e:,.< q-.Aot. a... r. >n: t:t?, .2,0.0. *0, -, t C.... 0.-a-Gent. C. ci. ..p. -y ka-. t.a- I r.s C.p- ar a-. ia-nhC rC.4 IS an vs-s...,: Nc oat cC .coicq.. c-i- a- Il-s-' Cc.. .IUGC.n -l  a- ..CS. a-.'  m-orGrCt.  C. .rt.....ac ______ ___________ cc. a-.: *y 0..-: .01, e.tj..:0 C0.Ioq.oU C.-..* U-t.a-: CrJy r,1,Cc. CAt a .c..aa roe :o. a-2c ..,  $ V..-., va- .c lea-tao C.,.. ..z- 0-J arC-si a..L1. - V.q a- Co. oci..,.. 0,0..t0.. g.eas0. Cc. C.-.. a-.y ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ (so-i- - a-C.. It ..r.2aa-n CC. Cr .,r2 0.5$ 0CC 2.3 Access to NRM[ Data Data nay hc disscminated from the NRMI database in number of ways: within [RE research reports as individual data reports or lists on computer disk (in FoxPro or ASCII format) as a direct comnputer to computer link. Apart from the situation where the NRM'I is acting as a service system to larger dlatabases (scee section 3. 1 below) the commonest means of accessing data is by utilising the system's own reporting facility. This facility currently employs the Report Writer programme to design report formns and establish queries for the database. Report forms may be custom designed for specific queries or may bce one of a number of standard sheets designed for this purpose. The data output to the above reports may be defined by user-queries related to a nlumber of material, source or lproduct characteristics. Typical queries illustrating the flexibility of' the systemn are listed in Table 10. 3.0 THE NRMI AS AN AID TO BINA MARGA ACTIVITIES 3.1 Input to Road Management Bina Marga (BIPRAN) currently utilises two database systems, the IRN4S and BMS. which aid national/provincial road management and bridge management respectively. The NRMI i potentially suitable for adoption as a service database of aggregate information to both systems. nl 7 TABL-E g INRN1 CURREN'T STA&TUS -nIRUV1Nt NUMiLER F 01,UkCL- Lo 7 S~~e~UtArah 41- t-engkTlu ~~ -- --- 37 - Lamurna~ 15 ____I ____ b 19SS-92 Y- )9T 74 C _ _ _ h-a 11mur C>YL Kdzalnnti~n Selaun 7W9 G29 Sul~,c1 U~r~b 61 IT-F] _ _ _ _ _ _c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ] Initial discussions between IRE and BIPRAN have indicated the compatibility of the systems and files. The method of location of aggregate source by link number and chainage is Renerili in agreement with the procedure used by the IRMS, although a more detailed data iia~tc n n2 exercise may have to be undertaken to deal with those sources located by kabupaten and locJ-. road link numbers. The parallel location system using UTM grid references could be of used i-or this purpose. The NRMII contains a large variety of information not all of which would be of immediate use to either the IRMS or B3MS. 1t may be advantageous, therefore, In discussions with the interested parties, to arrive at a series of key data fields' to use as a primary service data file, with the remainder of the NRMI data being kept in reserve. A preliminary listing for such a primary f~ile is presented as Table 1 1. T.71B..E 10 ~YP1 c4.. STA~~~0 NW. C1JES.ES Bcsides its utilisation as a service database, the NRMI can also supply relevant data direct to either road planning or road construction activities through its standard query-report system. 3.2 Development at [Provincial Level The development of the NRMI system within the provinces could provide a signiFicani resource management tool at that level. Possible relationships between thle NRMI, Bina Niarga and provincial offices are schemat~ically presented on Figure 1. Proposals below: - for the staged development of the NRMI system at provincial level are outlined Formation of a team of NRMI trainers based at IRE. 2 Identification of suitable province to use as a pilot area for the training scheme. 9 r.ar..a fr ..:-J.n as irAerae .,-ea r.noe. Y.jbr.at 0: D~a: f ru, -.tY2.in wn area &!.-ed ty 9-.d rte~reciee Da Za fr! a particlar ri'er wvstas. Ia ta fr~ alcrg a desu-red link road or a de.fired access distance .c ti.A:, 1ink -road. Da .. ~rta a pati1al- osolocical fomt~o c- land syste~ D aroe. a pa-itc.y r sey. Da:a ab'.et a certai-n reiia~b~l~ty ra~c :1ia eay be cceed of~ of the !ielos in th aae n ea. e" &-_ be ace? rec by iCC-Z: i ar, eg- natexrals eeeL-:5 par-;cjilax dosign spec:~ icaJer- oo~uc~e£ of a 6e-azS.e orpcn-a .-,e cq-.ier. "ye~ be rce5seo as r dsa daza ae¶ia.?a r.lr 5~.cscr as iszs c'Va-f ml 1 WABr ===~t L.: S: 0;1 Y-ZV zi7J-' Mt1 i; ky tE [C~retDS. or r-~ Aaetr:,er (i!re~f: De~iuitin c.' nrareez'at li roa~f C~:.naoe o. .eceas rlo~a. off 2iat. link )-c~e88o ccrdit :m and l.- I'.ap reference, eit)er L-:v. g-~d or lat/lono. S5te ~prticxral st~at.. Metfds of e-xzavai.n Me-.od of ~rocess irg otniihyd-rological proble' Ma:teria1 type I~ercent.aae of materta type a: mah ltotation Qt2v ke- material 1 stc6 tent regiult-a Field etimazio. of or Par-t-zcle/clas: tyape -&~rq O.s iry ia !ndjileteb ka eyor 6, bock ne Estimate of prov~ racr'-e Estimate of total e e (p--,n Potenzial Cur.- usa~ Est-imate of acru.1 Estimate of pacnti. 1A il P-mKe"oed material sime P-oten.ed materi-l shap. c.~m1r ck'ly key aOT-rete tezz ~~'I'st Qzrrent pr lct rz Dates of survtyu Ve-ificatie. coics 3 Training of relevant staff in the identified province in use of the NRMI and its applications, including the development of province-kabupaten relationships. 4 Assuming the pilot scheme is successful then the logical next stage is tiw development of the NRMI transfer to other provinces or groups of provinces. 5 Finalisation of the lines of communication and responsibility between the provinces, Bina Marga and IRE into a functional national network. 10 0 - r -J L.. I- z C C 0 - __ C-- -C Ez u) -u C o -C) z Zc L!J D (3 z La TABLE 12 MINI)I~ PPOVINCIAL NW11 KARDW-ARE REflRD~~-'S Ccn~ter: AT 386/21M3-iz with 4Mb PAM 40 Mb hard disk Keyboard Super VGA Monritor Mo$use Pri-nter Epsocn WQ 1050 TlABLE 13 S-17hNDARD3 TE.STS FOR USE WI~'fl PROVINTCIAL NRMI Water Absorption Specific Gravity Lo~s Angeles Abrasion Aggregate Impact Va-lue SoundnessStripping9Carpction/CBRAtterbe-rg Linmits Particle Size Analysis (tems I to 3 above are the subject of proposals for the next Training and Research progr amnme at IRE which is due to start later this year. The move from stage 3 to stages 4 -and 5 is a maJOr One involving considerable investment in hardware and ma-npower resource; Table 12 contains a .suggested list of the hardware reoliired for each provincial RMI operation. Parallel to the above development must be the expansion and upkeep of the data within the NRMI system. This can either be achieved through Bina M'arga's own resources or b. contracting data collection programmes to suitable consultants. The fully operational system would require good information feedback at all levels antd the dlevelopment of working relationships between the provincial materials officer and the Kabupaten officers could be crucial. In this regard the use of kabupaten data collection forms could be advantageous whereby basic data on sources could be collected] or updated prior to full PRN4I type surveys in key areas if required. Laboratory testing at provincial level could be kept to a minimum of key tests relevant to thie material or product types (Table 13). The Aggregate Impact Value test, although niot as yet a nationally utilised test, is recommended because of its straight forwvard procedure and reitlativek stimple apparatus. h also has thec advantage of being readily adaptable to research prograinin..s concerned with material degradability. 12 w, A, major concern however is the potential confusion with regard to the current IRE standard for the AIV procedure which is not the same as the original BS812 standard. By eliminating the initial use of a sample measuring cup a significantly larger amount of material is tested in the IRE test and the resultant AIV values are of the order of only 50% of BS812 values. 4.0 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF THE NRMI 4. 1 Liaison with Bakosurtanal A potential liaison has been proposed with respect to the exchange of information between Bakosurtanal and the NRMI. Bakosurtanal has the responsibility to prepare inventories of national resources and appreciates the potential use of the NRNMI as a data source. This liaison has miajor advantages for the IRE not only because of access to relevant terrain mapping data, but also because of the potential tie-in with Bakosurtanal's progress on map digitisation and the development of a GIS system of data dissemination. 4.2 Resource Exploration The NRMII can form both a starting point and framework for the exploration and assessment of' road-making materials. It provides initial data for exploration programmes as well as a framework for storing and manipulation of data. The overall system also provides guidelines on data collection procedures, on data manipulation and on dissemination. The application of GIS techniques has significant potential in the development of integrated exploration and assessment programmes, these may be possibly enhanced by the incorporation of Expert System procedures. 4.3 Mlaterial Resource Reports The NRMI is able to provide basic information for the compilation of reports or guides onl [lhe spcfic ara rmtrals within such areas. In other words the point data contained within the NRMVI could be turned round and expanded to form the basis for such reports as, for exami-ple,: "The Laharic Deposit., of West Java and Their Utilisat ion in Road Building` or `The Road-Making Materials Resources of East Kalim-antan". Such reports have formned the basis for resource management in the UK for a number of years and would seemn to be .a logical extension of the NRMI concept. in 13 4.4 ~~Road-Making Materials Research One of the initial objectives of setting up the NRMI programme in 1988 was as a potential research tool into aggregate performance and the relationship between aggregate source and terrain. To this end the NRMI has been developed to include a substancial ;,,g~regate test.n element. and to) include relevant data on terrain systems and landforni. The utilisation of the Bakosurtanal Land System maps has been a major factor in thle derivation of terrain-resource relationships. These Indonesia-wide land systems provide a sound basis from, which to progress to more detailed relationships, perhaps involving more specific geological or land facet or element data. This work has major benefits in the field of source exploration. particularly in more remote areas of Indonesia. As an example of the sort of relationships that can be developed Table 14 presents a printout of' material source types versus land systems and land system groups in West Java and Figures 21 and 3 relate aggregate quality to terrain groups. The NRN4I Laboratory data collected and stored within the NRMI form~s a considerable database of aggregate properties information. Examples of the programmes of materials research arc outlined below. Development of aggregate testing procedures and programmes of direc application to Indonesian materials. Work already started in this field includes the examination of the problems of testing aggregate sources of highly variable composition. 2 M'ore extensive research into aggregate properties associated with particular material types, geological formations and terrain groups. 3 Development of testing procedures more closely allied to the in-service performance of aggregates. This research should be conducted in close conjunction with that being undertaken with respect to asphalt mix designs. Topics that have already been discussed are the use of the Ravelling Test and the detailed microscopic investigation of aggregate condition from road samples. 5.0 DCVELOPMENT OF RE7SEARCH BEYOND THE NRMI 5.1 Overall strategy The NRMI programme has, to date, been largely concerned with the collection and dissemination of f~actual data regarding the occurrence of aggregate sources. The previous section has dealt with development possibilities within its present framework. There are however. further topics associated with the general area of road-making material resources ousde this framework, but which could be very relevant to its further expansion. These research topics could be developed to provide data and guidance to specialised sections within the NRMII database management system. 14 4.4 00 000 00000- 00--- 0 0 0 00 COO. o 00000 0-00.-n on. .00000000.... ~* 000000000 .0 .0 O 0 .. 0 0 0 0 C ~ l 0000000... .. 0 00. .. ... 0 .. 00.0 0 .. .0..0 .o ...- ... ... 0 00000..0o 0.. 00 fl~~~e Coi 0 0 0 00 0 0 0010_ 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 0 0 15 in FICUR.E 2 ACTUAL OV~ALITY 0r SOURCES IN W. 3AVA TEPPIN PROVINCES F1NE- AGGREGATE- ACTUJAL LA~iD SYSTTYM LTITT F ICLTRE 3 POTrENTIAL QUALITY OF SOURCES IN W. JAVA TERPAP~IN PROVINCES FINE AGGREGATE POTENTIAL L1A.Nf SYYTEM UbmT MNO Atgt. mGoo O..1i" EMFt Q. 16 D 1ti 5.2 ~~The Use of Marginal Materials in Pavements There are areas in Indonesia, for example, parts of Kalimantan, where there is an apparent lack of aggregate sources capable of providing an adequate quality of material to meet existing road design specifications. The development of design strategies to counter this problem is an obvious Field of research that could link two of the current TARP project areas, Geotechnics and Pavements. Ideally research in this field should proceed on two fronts: the detailed examination of materials in these areas; and the development of pavement specifications to try and accommodate the avalable mnaterials. In other words, given the defined performance of certain materials, is it osible to derive a road pavement design to utilise them ? Apart from ASBUTON, which has already received considerable attention, some other work. has already been done in this field: In the utilisation of laterite gravel as an asphalt aggregate and in the examination of' the potential uses of burnt shale in road construction. 5.3 Eimbankment Fill Materials At present the NRMVI is not concemned with materials whose primary use is embankment fill. However, as the Indonesian road network is developed with increased attention being paid to geometry there will be a corresponding increasing amount of embankment earthworks. For example, the preliminary earthwork designs for the proposed Cikampek to Padalarang Toll Road indicated that some 29 embankments with maximum heights of over 15m, with 10 being over 25m, would be required. In order to be cost effective the material to build earthworks should come fromn reasonably close to the site. However one of the problems is thiat many Indonesian borrow miaterials, derived as they are by tropical weathering processes, have geotechnical properties different from those found in Europe or Amnerica where most current earthwork specifications originated. Ideal opportunities may exist to undertake practical research projects on the placement and performance of fill materials in conjunction with projects such as the CPTRZ where materials are likely to be used thact do not fall within AASH1TO or BS standard specifications. The objective of thie above research should be ~, clearer definition of the useability of tropically weathered soils as fill mlaterials. A related topic of research, which has already, received attention at IRE, is the suitability, of' groups o f Fill materials for stabilisation by either lime, cement or by mechanical means. The systematic collation of this existing information would be a first step 'in the setting-up of a readily available database of information. El ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~17 5.2 5.4 Environmental Impact The development of quarries, either hard rock or sand and gravel, can have a significantly, dctrimencnal effect on the adjacent environment. Table 15 lists some of these effects together with) some of the principal causes. 2. £N'1 P _ ZAc. £--: 2z' C:7I2.~C O. Although the current NRMI does record some information with respect to environmental impact this is done on purely subjective basis with the objective of indicating general areas of concern] It should be possible, after suitable methodology research, to extend this initial step into a miore systematic recording of Impact factors such as noise, dust and water lpollution. IRE Is already undertaking, impact research projects In line with the Indonesian Governmnents commitment to environment protection and the implementation of thc AMDAIL and AKDI.1 programmes. This IRE research could be progressed in parallel with materials soureeN exploration, assessment and development projects. Separate environment files could be set up) within the NRMI to hold and disseminate relevant data on dust, noise and groundvkatcr pollution. In thle case of key quarries the extended NRN4I could provide the basis for [the recording of their environmental impact from initial development through to final reinstatement. 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The work described 'in this paper forms part of the coillaborrative research project of the Indonesian Institute of Road Engineering and the UK's Transport Research Laboratory. 'h paper is published with the permission of the Research Director of TRL- and the Director a: IRE. 18 site ceb..~4 K:aul/acce-ss rcads 2.. 2. 7 £'1 aS/szL'ei : a 2, 3, 7 Sn1J.&sxa2 c .5, cregal e prcssa: 2 2. Sooi : di~szcsa-! 4. 7. Aczis&.Ž. sas 7, 5N:ote.szfe7 2 -.-A.-c .z1o 'r: ( L-u~ &..sz 2 =;-s 3 = 'I. Sk.c. u-:~az~e -,aze: I.: 7 = ?izar- lie a..' a/L- 3