Part 1 of RN 21 provides guidance to persons involved in the development of policy in relation to disability in transport in low- and middle-income countries. It begins by introducing the concept of disability, its prevalence, categorisations and social frameworks, before moving on to discuss policy responses related to disability and inclusion, barriers to participation and the role of advocacy. These elements are designed to promote awareness of disability and to foster improved understanding. The guide then transitions to discuss the policy development process, legislation, co-operation and consultation and funding. It concludes with practical strategies for planning and implementing accessible infrastructure and services and outlines the role of access audits. These elements support the design and delivery of practical outcomes, viewed and approached through the policy lens.
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ROAD NOTE 21 Enhancing the mobility of people with disabilities Part 1: Guidelines for Policymakers March 2022 Page 2 firstname.lastname@example.org www.hvt.preview.consideredcreative.com @Transport_Links This research was funded by UKAID through the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office under the High Volume Transport Applied Research Programme, managed by DT Global. The views expressed in this guide do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies. Page 3 This research was funded by UKAID through the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office under the High Volume Transport Applied Research Programme, managed by DT Global. The views expressed in this guide do not necessarily reflect the UK government’s official policies. Reference No. HVT/026 Lead Organisation/ Consultant Integrated Transport Planning Ltd. Partner Organisation(s)/ Consultant(s) Svayam Crystal Asige Title Road Note (RN21): Enhancing the mobility of people with disabilities. Part 1: Guidelines for Policymakers Type of document Project Report Theme Gender, inclusion, vulnerable groups Sub-theme None Author(s) Neil Taylor, Dr Nick Ayland, Subhash Chandra Vashishth, Crystal Asige, Thomas Fleming, Ruby Stringer, Georgia Taylor, Laura Marshall, Ian Stott, Charlotte Rhodes. Lead contact Neil Taylor Geographical Location(s) Low and Middle-Income Countries Abstract Part 1 of RN 21 provides guidance to persons involved in the development of policy in relation to disability in transport in low- and middle-income countries. It begins by introducing the concept of disability, its prevalence, categorisations and social frameworks, before moving on to discuss policy responses related to disability and inclusion, barriers to participation and the role of advocacy. These elements are designed to promote awareness of disability and to foster improved understanding. The guide then transitions to discuss the policy development process, legislation, co-operation and consultation and funding. It concludes with practical strategies for planning and implementing accessible infrastructure and services and outlines the role of access audits. These elements support the design and delivery of practical outcomes, viewed and approached through the policy lens. Keywords Disability, Inclusion, Transport, Policy ISBN 978-1-913317-05-8 Funding UKAID Acknowledgements Tom Rickert, Access Exchange International Pete Meslin, Access Exchange International Janett Jiménez, Access Exchange International Prof Nick Tyler, University College London Issue Status Author(s) Reviewed By Approved By Issue Date 1 Draft NT, NA, TF, RS, GT, LM NT, NA, SCV, CA NT 22/01/2021 2 Draft Final TF, GT, IS, CR TF NT 06/12/2021 3 Final GT, CR GT TF 03/02/2021 Page 4 Content Chapter 1: Introduction to Part 1 8 1.1 Overview of Part 1 9 Chapter 2: Understanding Disability 11 2.1 Prevalence of Disability 12 2.2 Visible and Non-Visible Disabilities 14 2.3 Social Model of Disability 15 Chapter 3: Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda 17 3.1 Policy Responses to Disability 18 3.2 National Policy Responses 20 Chapter 4: Barriers to accessing transport systems 22 4.1 Challenges experienced when accessing and using transport systems 23 Chapter 5: Advocacy 29 Chapter 6: Formulating Policy and Legislation 35 6.1 The Role of Policy 36 6.2 The Role of Legislation 37 6.3 The Process of Developing Policy and Legislation 39 6.4 Principles of Developing Policy and Legislation at both national and local levels 41 Chapter 7: Co-operation and Consultation 43 Chapter 8: Funding 49 8.1 Why Funding is Important 50 8.2 Funding Sources 50 Chapter 9: Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions 54 9.1 Providing New Infrastructure or Services 55 9.2 Upgrading Existing Infrastructure or Services 57 9.3 Access Audits 58 Page 5 Appendix A: References 60 Appendix B: Image Permissions 65 Appendix C: Advocacy organisations 68 Appendix D: Design and delivery guides 79 Appendix E: Further Research Papers and case studies 88 Tables Table 1: Examples of different types of disability 13 Table 2: Types of disability, with examples of visible and hidden impairments 15 Table 3: Barriers for various disabilities in different parts of the transport network 24 Figures Figure 1: Map showing countries that have ratified the UNCRPD 19 Figure 2: Three stages in developing policy and legislation 40 Figure 3: A potential candidate for improvement in Kenya. High pedestrian flows use this route to access the railway station. 57 Boxes Box 1: Case Study - World Bank Group Commitments on Disability-Inclusive Development 21 Box 2: Examples of challenges people with disabilities experience when using transport services 26 Box 3: Case Study - REDI (Network for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) 30 Box 4: Case Study - Mecanismo Independiente Convención sobre derechos personas con discapacidad (MICDPD), Peru 34 Box 5: Case study - South Africa’s White Paper on the Rights of People with Disabilities (WPRPD) 36 Box 6: Case Study - The UK Equality Act 2010 38 Box 7: Guidance on appropriate language 46 Box 8: Case Study – The Open Institute, Kenya 47 Box 9: Case Study - Bonifacio Global City Manila 56 Box 10: Case Study - Accessibility Auditing in Kuala Lumpur 59 Page 6 ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS RN21 Road Note 21 (Document name) FCDO Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office HVT High Volume Transport IMC DT Global Ltd RN Road Note LMIC Low-Medium Income Countries UK United Kingdom US$ US Dollars USA United States of America UNCRPD United Nations’ convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities WPA World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons ICT Islamabad Capital Territory SuM4AII Sustainable Mobility for All initiative SDG Sustainable Development Goal REDI Rights of Persons with Disabilities DPO Disabled Persons Organisation NGO Non-Government Organisation MICDPD Mecanismo Independiente Convención sobre derechos personas con discapacidad CRPD Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CONADIS National Council for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities WPRPD White Paper on the Rights of People with Disabilities INDS Integrated National Disability Strategy SAHRC South African Human Rights Commission ECMT European Conference of Ministers of Transport UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and Pacific Page 7 RN21 Road Note 21 (Document name) BBC British Broadcasting Corporation IFI International Financial Institutions EASST Eastern Alliance for Safe & Sustainable Transport FIA International Federation for Automobiles BRT Bus Rapid Transit BGC Bonifacio Global City Chapter 1 Introduction to Part 1 Introduction to Part 1 Page 9 Introduction to Part 1 1.1 Overview of Part 1 Road Note 21 (RN21) Enhancing the mobility of disabled people guidelines for practitioners is a best practice guide document for designing inclusive and accessible transport for disabled people worldwide, with guidance applicable to low and middle-income countries. The guide uses examples from around the world of where good practice has been observed in the design and delivery of transport. RN21 is split into two main parts. Part 1 of this guide provides overarching guidance to policy makers on how best to approach creating more accessible transport for people with disabilities. Part 2 aims to provide detailed guidance to practitioners on how best to approach creating more accessible transport for people with disabilities. Transport decisions are not made in a vacuum. Policy makers have a responsibility to understand the problems faced by people with disabilities, and to create strategies and policies to improve their experiences. This includes enabling people with disabilities to fight for their rights, consulting with them to understand their problems, and formulating action-based plans that can be put into practice, along with funding, to enact lasting change for more accessible transport. As such, this part of the guide is aimed more at policy makers than practitioners. This is because it focuses more on the legislative and policy background to creating accessible transport, rather than exploring the specific tools, layouts and materials which can be used to create more accessible transport environments. These elements are contained in Part 2 of the guide. The first few chapters of this part of the guide (Chapters 2 - 4) explore the meaning of disability and being disabled, and why it is so important to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. These sections explain some of the reasons that people with disabilities can struggle to access transport. Introduction to Part 1 Page 10 The later chapters of this part of the guide (Chapters 5 – 9) discuss some of the ways in which policy makers can improve accessibility for people with disabilities, including advocacy, policy and legislation, consultation, funding, planning and strategies. Throughout, this guide refers to examples of best practice from all over the world, presented as case study boxes. Readers should use Part 1 of the guide in order to: • Understand disability (Chapter 2); • See examples and best practice of how countries can protect the rights of people with disabilities, especially in relation to transport (Chapter 3); • Understand how disability can impact people’s ability to travel (Chapter 4); • Understand how people with disabilities can advocate for themselves, and be supported in doing so (Chapter 5); • Formulate policy and legislation to support people with disabilities’ rights and ability to travel (Chapter 6); • Consult with people with disabilities to understand their views (Chapter 7); • Create funding opportunities and policies which support transport that is accessible to all (Chapter 8); • Plan and make strategies for improving transport access for people with disabilities in the future (Chapter 9). Chapter 2 Understanding Disability Understanding Disability Page 12 Understanding Disability 2.1 Prevalence of Disability Globally, it is estimated that more than 1 billion people – around 15% of the world’s population – experience disabilities, 80% of whom live in Lower and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) . For many, a large proportion of public facilities, including transport, are completely inaccessible. People with disabilities are disadvantaged in many different ways, and comprise the world’s largest and most disadvantaged minority. Transport allows access to vital services and opportunities, and also enables key connections to local communities as well as full engagement in society. Therefore, it is extremely important that transport systems do not exclude people with disabilities, or make it harder for them to travel. As well as social benefits, there are also economic benefits to providing accessible transport. In the UK, it is estimated that transport providers lose approximately £42 million per month (US$56.5 million) by failing to provide options that are fully accessible for people with disabilities . For context, the cost of retro-fitting 219 UK mainline rail stations for step-free accessibility between 2006 and 2019 was £550 million (US$740 million) – an average of £2.5 million (US$3.4 million) per station. This is roughly equivalent to one year’s lost revenue across all inaccessible transport modes in the country, and underlines the long-term benefits that up-front investment in fully accessible transport infrastructure, stops and services can return. These figures do not include the benefits that fully accessible transport systems can yield for other ‘encumbered passengers’ – such as those travelling with small children or with heavy or voluminous items of luggage, and pregnant women and older people with reduced (rather than severely impaired) mobility . Understanding Disability Page 13 Categories of Disability The concept of disability is extremely complex, and there is no easy way to conceptualise the wide variety of disabling challenges that people can experience. In the broadest sense, the disabilities most people experience can be grouped into physical, sensory and neuro-diverse categories. However, specific conditions that tend to result in disability often impact upon people in different ways, and can be experienced in combination. As such, it is helpful to focus on the symptoms that individuals experience, as this is what can limit their ability to use transport systems and access opportunities, rather than their specific diagnosis . Some examples are given in Table 1. Table 1: Examples of different types of disability Disability category Related conditions Examples of related symptoms Physical Muscular dystrophy; paraplegia; fibromyalgia; arthritis; persons of short stature Difficulty walking; inability to sit; trouble standing for long periods; difficulty with negotiating steps and horizontal gaps Sensory Sight loss; hearing loss Partial or total loss of sight; Partial or total loss of hearing Neuro-diverse Autism; dementia; epilepsy Trouble coping with change or unexpected outcomes; panic and anxiety Some people’s experience of disability worsens over time (as a result of degenerative conditions). Others are stable or may have varying symptoms from day to day. Some conditions can be managed through medication or therapy, or might improve over time. As well as affecting individuals in different ways, disabling conditions are also acquired in different ways. Some people are born with a condition that causes a disability, while others may develop health conditions that affect them as they age. Disability can also be a result of a life event or the environment – examples of this might be a physical disability caused by a fall, or through involvement in a road traffic collision which could cause traumatic brain injury. Understanding Disability Page 14 Disability and poverty interact in complex ways, and approximately 20% of the world’s poorest people also experience disabilities . Some of the conditions that contribute to people developing disabilities – both at birth and through the acquisition of conditions that lead to disability during their lifetimes – also relate to poverty. Disability often results in poverty as well, due to the marginalisation from society that is commonly experienced by people with disabilities . Fewer people with disabilities complete formal education and they can also struggle to access employment as a result, meaning they are more likely to be trapped in cycles of poverty, particularly in Lower Income Countries. Between 20 and 30% of people travelling experience some form of mobility impairment or encumberment – including people with temporary health conditions, frail elderly people, pregnant women, parents with young children and people carrying shopping bags or goods . By providing transport services that are inclusive, and cater for a wider range of mobility needs, the pool of potential public transport passengers increases – along with the total value of potential revenues for public transport operators. Typically, the whole population benefits from footways and transport services that are safer, easier to use, and afford people more space. These guidelines use the principles of universal design and universal mobility: recognising that improving transport for people with disabilities benefits everyone in society. 2.2 Visible and Non-Visible Disabilities In the same way that people’s experience of conditions that result in disability can vary widely, and impact people in different ways, the way people with disabilities are viewed externally is also important. ‘Hidden’ or non/less-visible disabilities may not be visible or immediately apparent to onlookers due to a lack of visible signs of impairment or assistive equipment such as a wheelchair, crutches, or hearing aids. Examples of clearly visible disabilities include someone using a wheelchair (mobility impairment) or a long cane (sight impairment). Some of the challenges these Understanding Disability Page 15 individuals experience, and the aids they use to overcome disability, are evident to everyone else. However, less than 8% of people who are registered as disabled in the UK use a wheelchair  and data from the USA suggests that 74% of people with disabilities do not use assistive equipment, meaning that in practice, the majority of people with disabilities experience disabilities that may not be immediately visible to others . In the past, only conditions that result in visible symptoms have tended to be the focus of interventions to improve accessibility for people who are disabled by them. This means that individuals who experienced disabilities as a consequence of hidden conditions were often not considered through inclusive design processes. The related stigma around visible and non-visible disabilities can reduce opportunities for those with visible disabilities, since they may be expected to not be capable of certain activities. Table 2: Types of disability, with examples of visible and hidden impairments Disability category Example of visible impairments Example of non-visible/hidden impairment Physical Paraplegia causes individual to use a wheelchair Individual can walk but struggles to stand for long periods Sensory Severe visual impairment causes individual to use a long cane for navigation Severe hearing impairment prevents hearing public transport announcements Neuro-diverse Down’s syndrome affects facial appearance of individual Autism may make travelling alone extremely stressful and difficult 2.3 Social Model of Disability The Social Model of Disability asserts that people with disabilities are not disadvantaged by their condition or symptoms, but by the environment in which they must live and function. The environment around us includes physical barriers (for example, steps up into a bus or train), but also includes attitudes towards people with disabilities (for example, assuming that people with disabilities cannot Understanding Disability Page 16 travel independently) . Earlier concepts of disability were related to the medical or charitable model of disability, which focused on what people with disabilities cannot do. These resulted in incorrect assumptions about people with disabilities’ capabilities and their ability to act independently, understand complex information, or use public transport. The Social Model makes it clear that there is a distinction between impairment and disability: • Impairment is ‘… any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function …’ ; • Disability is a process of exclusion of people with impairments, which is seen as neither inevitable nor acceptable . Following the Social Model of Disability, combined with principles of Universal Design, people with disabilities quite rightly demand that their mobility needs should be addressed through the regular transport system. There is ample evidence that, in general, providing mainstream public transport services in a way that enables the majority of people with disabilities to use them (independently, or with assistance) is, in the long term, the cheapest and most effective way of catering for their mobility needs. Dedicated parallel systems, sometimes referred to as ‘para-transit’, are more costly. Whilst para-transit systems can be used by anyone, depending on the nature of the service, some groups may be more reliant on them, such as people who cannot use accessible public transport, or those using them as a transitional form of service while mainstream transport systems are being upgraded to make them more accessible for people with disabilities. Chapter 3 Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda Page 18 Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda 3.1 Policy Responses to Disability Understandings of disability have evolved over time, with related policy and legislation developing in parallel. The emergence of the social model of disability, described in Section 2:4, has shifted the focus of related policy-making onto the disabling impact the built environment, transport systems, and society can have upon some people, and how these can combine to limit equal access to opportunities . Recent policy approaches have therefore sought to enshrine the rights of people with disabilities into law, and to specify minimum standards for designing and delivering environments and services that are more accessible for all, rather than focusing on the specific issues people with disabilities face, which are diverse in nature. In higher income countries, approaches to disability are fairly well established across most aspects of policy. In LMICs, policies relating to disability are still developing, but have improved significantly since the publication of the first edition of this document. Many LMIC governments are now committed to amending national policies to fulfil their obligation to global commitments agreed with the United Nations (UN). Approaches to designing and delivering transport systems and services should centre on accessibility and inclusive design. However, this must also be underpinned by appropriate policies and legislation to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are fully considered, and that non-compliance is enforceable by law. 3.1.1 Global Policy Responses There are various global commitments to improving the lives of people with disabilities. One of the most significant international commitments in this field is the UN’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), which came into force in 2008. As of 2020, 181 countries have ratified the UNCRPD  (see Figure 1) demonstrating their commitment to protecting and promoting the human rights of Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda Page 19 people with disabilities by: • Eliminating disability discrimination; • Enabling people with disabilities to live independently in the community; • Ensuring an inclusive education system; • Ensuring people with disabilities are protected from all forms of exploitation, violence and abuse  Prior to the development of the UNCRPD, non-binding human rights instruments included the UN documents ‘World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons (WPA)’ 1982 and the ‘Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities’ 1993. However, the UNCRPD represents the first legal commitment to the rights of people with disabilities. Figure 1: Map showing countries that have ratified the UNCRPD In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly also outlined a series of Sustainable Development Goals, which have been described as the ‘blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all’ . The UN aims to achieve all 17 goals by 2030, including Aim 10: Reduced inequalities. ‘Reducing inequalities and ensuring no one is Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda Page 20 left behind are integral to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals’ . 3.2 National Policy Responses Individual countries have developed their own policy responses to align their treatment of people with disabilities with the UNCRPD. This can take the form of legislation around the rights of people with disabilities - for example, the Government of India drafted the Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill in 2014, in response to the ratification of the UNCRPD. The Bill confers several rights and entitlements to disabled persons, including universal access to all public buildings, hospitals, modes of transport and polling stations . Similarly, in 2020 the Government of Pakistan approved The ICT Rights of Persons with Disability Act, which makes it illegal to discriminate against people with disabilities. This legislation provides individuals with legal recourse in all areas of life in the event of discrimination, including education, employment and healthcare ; . In many cases, the progression of policy has been faster than change to operations or infrastructure. This is because it is easier to update policy in a central manner than to individually review and renew built environments and transport systems. From the perspective of transport operations, even if appropriate legislation is applied to infrastructure, vehicle and service design, there is considerable lead-in time before this becomes widespread in practice ‘on-the-ground’. There can also be variations in both the application and enforcement of legislation, which lead to inconsistencies between policy intent and outcomes. Disability at the Forefront of the Transport Agenda Page 21 Box 1: Case Study - World Bank Group Commitments on Disability-Inclusive Development In 2018, The World Bank Group made a series of ten new commitments to Disability-Inclusive Development. These commitments were related to a range of topics, including education, gender, technology, data and accountability. The sixth commitment is related to transport. This commitment states that “[b] y 2025 all new urban mobility and rail projects supporting public transport services will be inclusive in their designs so as to incorporate key universal access features for people with disability and limited mobility.” Furthermore, the Commitment also relates to enhancing road safety outcomes (both for people with disabilities’ safety and as a means to reduce rates of disability as a result of road crashes) and ensuring that equity considerations of all kinds, including access for people with disabilities remains at the forefront of the Sustainable Mobility for All initiative (SuM4All), which works to implement safe, green, efficient and universally accessible transport across the world, with a particular focus on lower income countries. Source:  Chapter Barriers to accessing transport systems 4 Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 23 Barriers to accessing transport systems Empowered by the Social Model of Disability (defined in Chapter 2:4), people who experience physical, sensory and neuro-diverse impairments increasingly demand that the barriers which disable them in transport environments be removed. The usability of transport systems is consistently identified by disabled and older people as major reasons why they remain isolated from society . In developing countries in particular, people’s inability to access education, healthcare or job opportunities contributes significantly to trapping people with disabilities and their families in poverty. The first UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) is to eradicate poverty in all its forms, everywhere . Consequently, removing barriers to transport for diverse users and their families is extremely urgent - both in achieving equality for people with disabilities and reducing poverty rates worldwide. 4.1 Challenges experienced when accessing and using transport systems The range of different challenges encountered by people when using transport systems varies, and depends on the activity limitations that the individual experiences. These are often a consequence of the impairments they experience, which may vary from day to day and/or be particularly limiting in certain contexts. Table 3 gives some examples of these barriers in the context of different types of impairments. It is important to remember that these impairments may also be experienced in combination by some people. Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 24 Table 3: Barriers for various disabilities in different parts of the transport network Aspect of transport system Physical Sensory Neurodiverse Pedestrian infrastructure Lack of dropped kerbs may prevent a wheelchair user from being able to use a pavement/sidewalk Lack of tactile paving may prevent a visually impaired person from identifying a safe place to cross the road Inconsistent road markings (e.g. crossings) may be confusing for some people with neurodiverse conditions Interchanging between transport modes Lack of step-free access may prevent a wheelchair user from being able to enter / exit and access platforms Poor quality signage in bus / train stations can make it challenging for people with visual and hearing impairments to navigate them Lack of trained staff / a dedicated assistance service might prevent some people from making the journey. Access to vehicles Steps into a vehicle may prevent a wheelchair user from being able to enter Steps into a vehicle may cause a visually impaired person to trip when entering the vehicle A lack of information about fares may result in some people feeling nervous to travel and/or avoid travelling Vehicle stopping Vehicles stopping suddenly may cause people with poor balance to fall Lack of audible stop announcements (automatic or through someone calling) may prevent a visually impaired person from exiting a vehicle at their correct destination stop Audible announcements that are too loud might prevent some people with neurodiverse conditions from feeling relaxed when using public transport services Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 25 People who experience neurodiverse and hidden disabilities are often the least considered in designing accessible transport systems, in all countries. Some key examples of hidden neurodiverse disabilities include autism, which affects how people communicate and interact with the world , and dementia, which can include memory loss, difficulties with thinking and problem solving, and language . Other hidden disabilities include physical impairments that might make it more difficult for people to stand or walk, but do not require an individual to use a mobility aid. Further barriers that people with hidden disabilities experience when accessing transport are outlined in ‘Accessible Public Realm: Updating Guidance and Further Research’ . For neurodiverse impairments, including autism and dementia, inclusive design is often related to the presentation of information. Ensuring that people are able to access information about their journey in a range of different ways can help to overcome this. For people with autism in particular, travelling can be very stressful, particularly if there are changes to schedules, delays, or if there is a lot of noise or crowds of people moving around. For people who experience neurodiverse conditions, using transport services can present a wide range of challenges. The UK’s National Autistic Society, for example, found that around 96% of autistic people said that public transport causes them anxiety . Furthermore, “75% of autistic people say that unexpected changes, like delays, diversions and cancellations, make them feel socially isolated, and 52% of autistic people said that a fear of experiencing unexpected changes has stopped them from going on a bus or train.”  For these reasons it is very important that routes keep to a schedule. For people with hidden physical impairments, including conditions that make it more difficult to stand, inclusive design may relate to public awareness campaigns that make it easier for people with hidden disabilities to access the help they require, which in this case might include being offered a seat on public transport, or providing benches for resting on footways. Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 26 Box 2: Examples of challenges people with disabilities experience when using transport services The impacts of inaccessible transport services can be devastating, reducing the amount of social interaction that people with disabilities experience. This can be a result of physical barriers to accessibility, for example for wheelchair users: “After injury I felt that my social life has been affected so much, due to the difficulty of transportation and environment challenges, it is difficult to do the daily activities (visiting friends, going out…etc), as well as go to hospital appointments and rehabilitation. Before the injury I was an active member in the society, I had many friends and used to go out with them to do some activities and sports. But after the injury, it was difficult for me to go out with them, because the environment is not adapted for wheelchair users, either the streets, transportation, shops, restaurants, or other facilities.” – Fadi  As many environments are often inaccessible for people with disabilities, there are often practical mitigations put in place by individuals to allow them to access the locations and services they need: “I have been forced to come up with practical solutions to face headon with confidence an ill-equipped environment to live an active life with Muscular Dystrophy while, in parallel, campaigning for a more inclusive society. Among these private efforts, I have had to hire a driver/assistant who provides me with the support needed for transportation purposes. It is not an uncommon sight in Port-au-Prince to Image above: A footway at a different height to the street, with no ramp prevents the man in a wheelchair from joining the footway in Kenya. Image above: A bus with a narrow access with steps in Kenya. Without an alternative access via a lift, this would be inaccessible to those with mobility impairments. Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 27 witness my assistant carrying me as we climb several flights of stairs, even at the tax office to pay my dues!” – Gerald  The attitudes of other people are also a key barrier: “Near the start of the bus route I climb on. I am one of the first passengers. People continue to embark on the bus. They look for a seat, gaze at my hearing aids, turn their glance quickly and continue walking by. Only when people with disabilities will really be part of the society; will be educated in every kindergarten and any school with personal assistance; live in the community and not in different institutions; work in all places and in any position with accessible means; and will have full accessibility to the public sphere, people may feel comfortable to sit next to us on the bus.” – Ahiya  Sometimes, poor perceptions of people with disabilities are combined with physical barriers that combine to make it particularly challenging for people with disabilities: “The hardest obstacle for my independence has been the attitude of the people. They think that we can’t do many things. Also, the steps and architectural barriers. I had an experience in the Casa de la Cultura with the director. There were many steps and I couldn’t enter so I sent someone to call for help and when the director came, surprised, he said ‘what’s happened, what’s happened, why are you like this’. He thought that I was there to beg for money, and had not thought that I was working.” – Feliza  For people with Autistic Spectrum Disorder, travelling can be extremely stressful due to the potential for unexpected change; “It makes me really quite anxious that I will miss my stop since I do not know where the bus is going, and I don’t Bollards and parked vehicles block a pedestrian crossing in Batumi, Georgia. Barriers to accessing transport systems Page 28 know which stop to look out for, even if I’ve looked it up online. I remember avoiding using buses for quite a few years as I did not feel comfortable finding the right stop, since bus routes are less obvious than trains, and you have to ask them to stop.”  Image Sources: First and second image - ASIRT Kenya. Third image – Authors own. Chapter Advocacy 5 Advocacy Page 30 Advocacy In many developing societies negative attitudes towards disability are pervasive, arising from superstition, fear, and misconceptions about disability. Many studies have illustrated how family members with disabilities are kept at home, partly to protect them from an unfriendly society, and partly to avoid the social stigma of having disability in the home . The first obstacle to greater mobility and social interaction is therefore often the negative attitude of society. For this reason, many organisations of people with disabilities have taken the lead in promoting greater awareness in their local communities of their specific needs. Advocacy by people with disabilities, usually together with other concerned citizens or groups, is considered a crucial element of promoting more appropriate design and operation of transport infrastructure and transport services. In many cases, people with disabilities, and those who directly support them, understand their needs the best. They are usually best able to tell policy makers, designers, and operators how their services can be improved to better meet these needs. Box 3: Case Study - REDI (Network for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) REDI (Network for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) is an Argentinian disabled persons NGO, which advocates for the rights of people with disabilities and actively campaigns for increased legislative protection of people with disabilities alongside enforcement of existing legislation such as the UNCRPD. REDI has been involved in the human rights movement since its creation in 1996 and is now one of the most recognised DPOs in the country. REDI seeks to influence public perceptions of disability and improve Advocacy Page 31 access to transportation, education, work and training. It is a key contributor to the national “Ciudades Accesibles” program which promotes physical accessibility. Source:  Image Source: REDI Useful pointers for undertaking effective advocacy include:1 • Target a variety of audiences. The first audience is often other people with disabilities, to encourage them to demand equal treatment and inclusion in their societies, rather than depending on welfare handouts. Other important audiences include political decision makers, influential community members, professional people (architects, engineers), key government officials, vehicle manufacturers, transport operators, the mass media, and the public at large. • Reach out to unite people with different disabilities. By working across disability lines – for instance, organisations representing people with vision impairments, people with physical impairments, and parents of disabled children – NGOs can become more effective in their advocacy. Cross-disability advocacy also assists transport officials to understand the variety of needs of their disabled passengers, without sending them conflicting or confusing messages about what should be done to their service. • Bring together people with disabilities and other stakeholders. These stakeholders may include older people, carers with children and other interested and knowledgeable parties who may not consider themselves disabled. Nevertheless, many of these people cannot use transport without many of the features which make it accessible to passengers with disabilities. Universal design benefits more than just people with disabilities. Other stakeholders might include human rights organisations, faith-based organisations, and agencies serving tourists. Petitions or public statements are much more likely to be taken seriously by authorities when endorsed by a wide range of stakeholders. 1 Many strategies in this and subsequent sections are described in more detail by guidelines issued by UNESCAP (1995), SUSTRAN (2000) and AEI (2003). Advocacy Page 32 • Develop a clear strategy with measurable short-term and longer- term goals. A short-term goal could be to include accessibility features in a planned new rail station. A long-term goal could be to help a city to adopt a comprehensive policy on making transport accessible to everybody. • Designate an access team within self-help organisations. To play their critical role in formulating access legislation, organisations may consider designating an access team, drawn from its members, to specialise in mobility and transport. Members should acquire basic technical knowledge of access issues and skills for dialogue and cooperation with the relevant sectors of society and government. Inclusion of prominent and skilled people with disabilities can play an important role in mobilising grassroots support. • Advocate vigorously during planning stages of new infrastructure. Advocating for accessibility as a design requirement when new transport facilities or systems are being planned is better than retrofitting. Infrastructure such as new rail stations, busways, road schemes or pedestrian facilities can often be made accessible to a wide range of users at minimal additional cost during the planning process. Highly visible improvements provide good publicity for all stakeholders and encourage officials to do more. Disability advocates need to be involved at an early stage to ensure officials and designers are aware of their inputs. • Promote understanding and acceptance with face-to-face contact. Get to know key people, such as elected officials, planners, and transport managers. Get to understand their viewpoints. Try to find a champion for your cause in government, the media, or a university. • Make clear and concise materials available to the public and to people with disabilities. This can highlight the mobility problems people experience and provide information on regulations and requirements for accessibility that are in place. For example, the National Council for Rehabilitation and Special Education and the Office of the President, with assistance from Spain’s Agency for International Cooperation, distributed five thousand copies of Costa Rica’s National Law 7600, mandating access to transport and other sectors. Alternatively, the material can highlight norms and guidelines describing emerging International Standards for accessible streets, buildings, and vehicles. Material can be made available in printed and other formats. Advocacy Page 33 • Make guidelines for the use of correct terminology. Make sure information is available to government departments, the mass media, and people who promote access issues. The use of language that avoids evoking pity or guilt can contribute to changing attitudes. • Involve the mass media. The internet, social media, television, radio, and newspapers can be powerful in promoting positive attitudes and access awareness among both decision makers and the general public. Global smartphone access is rising, and social media is a powerful tool for reaching a mass audience. Disability advocates could visit media managers in person to underline the need for improved media coverage of access issues. They could form personal contacts with interested reporters. Reporters and editors may need to be educated themselves on disability issues and the correct use of language. The use of positive reinforcement through publishing examples of successful removal of barriers can help to motivate officials to do more. • Hold public meetings organised and chaired by people with disabilities to focus public and media attention on their concerns. Officials and politicians are sometimes moved to act by the desire to avoid negative publicity. • Carry out an ‘access audit’ of transport facilities. This is a technical evaluation to systematically assess the level of barrier-free access provided by a facility, and to identify what needs to be done (see Chapter 9: 3 for more information). Disability advocates can undertake such audits themselves and send the results to the media or to the transport agency or city government. • Launch a national access awareness campaign. Such a campaign could combine many of the other strategies mentioned here and could be especially effective if launched with the backing of a government department. It could be repeated annually, each year reporting on the progress that has been made and giving public recognition to excellent and/or innovative access programmes. • Take photographs of problems. Show people struggling to cope with a barrier to access. For example, drawings of people with disabilities unable to climb stairs have been used effectively in ‘The Japan Times’ newspaper. Make sure photos are not likely to cause damages to any identifiable person. Consideration should also be given to relevant local privacy, safeguarding and/or data protection laws. • Promote ongoing training on access issues. Training of professionals involved Advocacy Page 34 in planning and managing the built and transport environments – including engineers, architects, building managers, inspectors and so forth – is of critical importance to the long-term success of access promotion. Disability organisations should work with universities, colleges, and professional institutions (such as the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport) to promote the inclusion of access training in regular curricula. This may be particularly helpful in countries where formal controls over the transport environment through standards and legislation are weak. People with disabilities can participate in training courses, giving firsthand accounts of their experiences. Access training is always more effective if the trainees can discuss issues with those who are directly affected. • Establish cooperative working relationships across regional disability groups to strengthen advocacy. Regional cooperation can demand more resources from an organisation but can also promote effective advocacy through sharing lessons amongst partners in similar circumstances. Box 4: Case Study - Mecanismo Independiente Convención sobre derechos personas con discapacidad (MICDPD), Peru The mission of the MICDPD is to ensure compliance of the Peruvian State in relation to the rights of persons with disabilities as outlined in the framework of the CRPD. MICDPD promotes the incorporation of the rights of people with disabilities in public policies and monitors the execution of these policies. They advocate for inclusivity by organising interactive public awareness campaigns, such as the 2019 “Discapacidad con derechos ¡Ahora!” (Disability Rights, Now!) festival, which promoted and raised of the rights of people with disabilities. In 2019, the ‘Defensoría del Pueblo’, under which MICDPD sits, urged the municipalities of Peru and the National Council for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (CONADIS), to monitor and sanction the lack of accessibility in public transport for people with disabilities. The organisation advocated the training of drivers and education of the general population in respecting the rights of people with disabilities to ensure that the streets are an accessible environment for all citizens. Source:  Chapter Formulating Policy and Legislation 6 Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 36 Formulating Policy and Legislation 6.1 The Role of Policy Policies are statements about objectives or goals and the approach by which they are to be achieved. Policies can be formalised as policy documents, white papers, or included in formal legislation and should be periodically reviewed and updated. For example, South Africa’s Integrated National Disability Strategy was first adopted in 1997 by the Cabinet, as the government’s official policy framework for disability matters, and is reviewed every five years. A review of the policy in 2014 highlighted the progress that had been made towards implementing the policy, the influence of legislation brought in after publication and the limitations of the original policy, including how the policy had evolved to better address the needs of those it served. It articulated a continued and coordinated approach towards achieving equality for people with disabilities across all sectors of society. The following year, the 2015 White Paper on the Rights of People with Disabilities (WPRPD) was published. Box 5: Case study - South Africa’s White Paper on the Rights of People with Disabilities (WPRPD) The 2015 White Paper on the Rights of People with Disabilities updated South Africa’s 1997 White Paper on an Integrated National Disability Strategy (INDS). The document endorses a trajectory for realising the rights of people with disabilities by integrating obligations of the ‘UNCRPD’ and the ‘Continental Plan of Action for the African Decade of Persons with Disabilities’ with South Africa’s policy frameworks and the National Development Plan 2030. The WPRPD was developed in consultation with organisations of and for people with disabilities, government departments, municipalities, public entities, the private sector and civil society at large, as well as the South African Human Rights Commission (SAHRC). Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 37 The purpose of the WPRPD is to: • Provide clarity and guide the development of standard procedures for mainstreaming disability • Guide the review of all existing policies, and the development of new ones • Specify standards for the removal of discriminatory barriers • Broadly outline the responsibilities and accountabilities of the various stakeholders involved in providing barrier-free, appropriate, effective, efficient and coordinated service delivery to people with disabilities • Guide self-representation of people with disabilities. The policy objectives and strategies outlined in the INDS remain relevant and are reinforced by the nine strategic pillars identified in the WPRPD. Source:  6.2 The Role of Legislation Legislation has the force of the state behind it and can go further than policy statements by specifying in more detail what various stakeholders can and cannot do, ensuring that the objectives of the policy are delivered. The term legislation is used to indicate a variety of legal instruments, depending on the country’s political system. It includes national or parliamentary laws, decrees passed by Ministries or Heads of State, Executive or Government Orders, and local/municipal by-laws or ordinances. It is recognised that legislative frameworks are highly context specific, but that in most countries national transport ministries play the leading role in the formulation of policy and accompanying legislation. These are often supported by local ordinances (e.g. at the town/city/region level) that focus on implementation of nationally-set laws. Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 38 The importance of enacting legislation to promote universal mobility is recognised by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The CRPD is a legally-binding Human Rights Treaty intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. The CRPD sets out the importance of legislation in Article 4 – General Obligations, which requires that states who ratify the CRPD harmonise domestic laws with the convention. States are required to: a. Adopt all appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present convention, and b. Take all appropriate measures, including legislation to modify or abolish existing laws, regulation, customs and practices that constitute discrimination again persons with disabilities. Legislation specifically instructing transport operators and government authorities to deliver on universal mobility has been adopted in countries around the world including recent legislation in Nigeria (Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities Prohibition Act, 2018), Antigua and Barbuda (Disabilities Equal Opportunities Bill, 2017) and India (The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016). Box 6: Case Study - The UK Equality Act 2010 The UK Equality Act came into effect in 2010, replacing the Disability Discrimination Acts of 1995 and 2005. The Act protects people against discrimination, harassment or victimisation in employment, and as users of private and public services, including transport, based on nine protected characteristics: age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation. The Equality Act goes further than its predecessors in protecting people with disabilities from indirect discrimination and harassment. To be covered by the act as a disabled person, a person must have “a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 39 long-term adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities” . The definition is “designed to be as broad as possible and cover a wide range of conditions and impairments, including hidden disabilities and both mental and physical impairments, with some conditions automatically covered by diagnosis.”  Source: ,  6.3 The Process of Developing Policy and Legislation Although the process of developing policy and legislation varies by country, three main stages are usually evident: 1. Mobilisation of grassroots support and support of key persons/ organisations: Many of the methods discussed in Chapter 5 (Advocacy) can be helpful in mobilising wide support, including: • Developing close relations with television and radio correspondents and print media journalists; • Using social media channels and online platforms to attract support and encourage supporters to ‘share’ information to reach a wider audience; • Lobbying with legislators, political parties, as well as community and religious leaders; • Submitting public petitions on access needs to the speakers of parliament or state legislative assemblies; • Submitting reports and memoranda on progress in the promotion of access to political, legislative, and administrative fora at all levels, including parliament, state assemblies, and chief executives (e.g. prime minister, ministers, governors, mayors and village chiefs). Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 40 . 2. Formulation, public opinion and enactment: This consists of drafting access policy provisions, obtaining public opinion about the drafts, developing more detailed legislative provisions for implementation, revision and finalisation, and enactment. A strategy that can be very helpful for government officials is to mobilise concerned sectors of society into an advisory committee, including representatives of diverse disability groups, older people, children and women, administrators, key professionals (e.g. medical and legal experts, architects and engineers), transport service providers, and government officials. The task of the committee should firstly be to clearly identify the access needs and barriers which need to be addressed, and then to submit specific recommendations on actions to be taken. This would help prevent a government being overwhelmed by receiving conflicting messages on what needs to be prioritised. The optimal size of the committee could be 15 to 25 people. 3. Implementation, enforcement and monitoring: After enactment, work starts on developing more detailed implementation strategies, complete with time frames and budget allocations. Legislation should consider enforcement mechanisms, such as awarding incentives to encourage observance of access policy provisions, or imposing penalties in the event of non-compliance. Enforcement provisions could also include the right for individuals to take legal action if the legislation is not applied by specific authorities or private transport operators. Mechanisms for regular review of the effectiveness of access policy provisions and/or legislation should also be included in legislation. Figure 2: Three stages in developing policy and legislation Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 41 6.4 Principles of Developing Policy and Legislation at both national and local levels Some key principles to keep in mind when developing access policy and legislation include: • It can take many years to develop policy and legislation. Therefore, codes of practice can be developed and implemented as an interim measure. Voluntary codes of practice can often contain more stringent standards than mandatory regulations. • Access requirements can be formulated as: • stand-alone legislation dealing solely with disability issues (as is the case with India’s Persons with Disabilities Act). This approach has the advantage of being able to give coherent and comprehensive guidance to stakeholders in many sectors whose actions need to be coordinated, or; • integrated with other policies and legislation (such as South Africa’s Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, 2000 or the UK Equality Act 2010, which prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability, race, gender, and other grounds). This approach has the advantage of permitting faster and more effective implementation and enforcement, through mechanisms that already exist. In many cases a combination of these two approaches will be appropriate. • Access legislation needs to cover a diverse range of needs, including people with both visible and hidden physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities. • All legislation, guidelines, and standards should be developed and strengthened through consultation with people with disabilities. • Policy goals and legislation should recognise that true mobility requires more than just infrastructure (e.g. having ramps instead of steps). Legislation should thus take account of all design factors, operational factors, fare policies, and management practices. • The specific norms and standards to be adhered to in the design and operation of transport are often developed by national Standards bodies. In such cases legislation may only refer to the relevant Standard and require compliance with its provisions. There is much sharing of standards and guidelines across countries and continents, with the result that standards in use across the world are more alike Formulating Policy and Legislation Page 42 than they are different. Countries which have not yet developed their own standards, or which lack the institutional capacity to undertake this task, may benefit from work done elsewhere (see for instance the practices summarised in Part 2, guidance for practitioners). The typical contents of access legislation could include: • The prohibition of unfair discrimination against people with disabilities in the design of services, fare schedules, and operating procedures; • Clauses mandating effective consultation with affected people with disabilities, in the preparation of transport projects and plans, and mechanisms for achieving this; • Target time frames for achieving the specified actions; • Circumstances and grounds for exemptions from the access requirements or time frames; • A requirement for staff training to improve the services offered to all passengers, including those with disabilities; • Enforcement mechanisms for promoting compliance and dealing with noncompliance; • A monitoring mechanism for reviewing progress and updating the legislation; • Specific actions that need to be taken by designated stakeholders in removing barriers and facilitating universal mobility. Legislation could mandate, for instance, that all new transport interchanges and vehicles should be fully accessible, with gradual phasing in of low-cost features for existing transport infrastructure, vehicles, and systems. In any country the specific actions will depend on the relative presence and importance of different barriers and the level of resource available. Chapter Co-operation and Consultation 7 Co-operation and Consultation Page 44 Co-operation and Consultation Government officials, planners and transport operators can benefit greatly from consulting and collaborating with local groups representing disabled users. Travellers with disabilities have valuable insights based on their own experiences of negotiating every day the numerous obstacles in their environment. Examples abound of wellmeaning but misguided schemes which attempt to make access improvements based on what non-disabled people think people with disabilities need. This often creates new obstacles and, for this very reason, some disability groups have adopted the slogan ‘Nothing About Us, Without Us’. Effective consultation and collaborative working from early project design and planning stages benefits everybody. Public authorities sometimes fear that engagement and consultation will delay implementation, or that others will make unreasonable demands on their budgets or resources. While consultation itself does indeed require some time, many authorities have come to appreciate the fact that effective consultation can actually shorten the overall implementation time, if it helps them to identify and resolve key issues early on, rather than having to try to change decisions or designs late in the process. Early engagement often removes the need to retrofit accessibility measures at a later date and can therefore be more cost-effective in the long-term. Disability groups often understand the need to work within budgets and procedural constraints and are eager to work together with authorities to come up with viable solutions to problems. Some pointers to promote effective consultation and cooperation between authorities and people with disabilities include: • The earlier on engagement and consultation happens, the better. By providing designers and planners with a better understanding of people’s needs from the beginning, early consultation can help avoid costly rectification of mistakes later in the process. This is especially important in developing countries, where formal access standards may not be available, and ‘informal’ input of users may be even more valuable to identify correct design parameters of, for instance, locally Co-operation and Consultation Page 45 applicable wheelchair or tricycle dimensions. It is important to gather input from a variety of sources, in these situations, to ensure adequate review. • Remember that ‘disability’ covers a wide spectrum of people with different needs. Consultation should involve people who use wheelchairs, who are ambulant disabled, people with partial sight and others who are blind, people with impaired hearing, people who are profoundly deaf, and people who experience neurodiverse conditions and hidden disabilities. This is not to say that consultation should be exclusively with people with disabilities, as other interested and affected groups (such as vendors, property owners, elderly people, and other transport users) have as much a claim to be heard. However, people with disabilities are among the only groups that are at risk of being largely excluded from using the facility or service if it is designed without regard to their needs. Authorities should therefore make special efforts to include them. • Authorities can encourage the formation of local-level access groups to consult with on access and mobility issues. The European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) recommends that consultative bodies have an equitable representation of all the main interest groups: administrators, operators, vehicle equipment suppliers, and associations for people with disabilities. Older people, architects, engineers, and local business could also be represented. Activities that the access groups may pursue could include: • Putting access on the agenda and keeping officials focused on access issues through periodic meetings. According to the UNESCAP, ”a local-level access group should use publicity as a tool to encourage the emulation of examples of good practice and to generate fear of negative press coverage” ; • Consultation with the local authority on access issues, including prioritising actions, avoiding mistakes, and monitoring results by testing design features and reporting back on compliance with operating standards; • Information exchange with other bodies working on access and mobility. • Once some experience is built up in relation to local solutions to access problems through engagement and consultation, it should be followed up with local policy and implementation guidelines that can be followed in the course of other work. This would be more efficient than trying detailed consultation on a multitude of individual minor projects. Co-operation and Consultation Page 46 • Authorities should be aware of the use of correct language when talking with and about people with disabilities and consider preparing guidelines on the use of appropriate terminologies aligned to the Social Model of Disability (see Chapter 2: 4 ). Language reflects the values and attitudes of a society, and people with disabilities have for a long time suffered under terminology that labels or stereotypes them, has discriminated against them, and which ultimately creates a culture of non- acceptance of diversity. • Consultation should be followed up with direct involvement of people with disabilities in development and testing of features – in other words participation. This will help ensure that whatever is provided does indeed meet its intended goals. • After an existing facility is improved or new accessible infrastructure or services are provided, information should be fed back to potential users with disabilities to make sure they know about the improvements. The methods vary depending on the type and scale of changes, but could include correspondence with disability organisations, newspaper or radio announcements, or the use of leaflets or advertising. Box 7: Guidance on appropriate language Although there are no hard and fast rules, the following list includes words and phrases that should be remembered when talking to or writing about people with disabilities: • Many people with disabilities find the word ‘handicapped’ offensive, as it carries connotations of ‘cap in hand’. Most people prefer the terms ‘disabled person’ and ‘person with disabilities’. • It is dehumanising to refer to a person in terms of a condition or mobility device. Do not talk about ‘a spastic’ or ‘an epileptic’ or synonymise a person using a wheelchair with the wheelchair itself with objectifying phrases like ‘we have a wheelchair’ (to refer to the user and device together). Instead say ‘he has cerebral palsy’ or refer to ‘a person with epilepsy’ or ‘wheelchair user’. • Remember that a wheelchair represents freedom to its user. Do not say ‘wheelchair bound’ or describe someone as ‘confined to a wheelchair’. Rather talk about a ‘wheelchair user’ or a ‘person who uses a wheelchair.’ Co-operation and Consultation Page 47 • Avoid words which invite pity or reinforce impressions of frailty or dependence. Examples are ‘suffers from’, ‘affected with’ or ‘victim of’. Instead say ‘person who has/person with/person who experiences …’ • Avoid terms like ‘mentally retarded’, ‘insane’, ‘slow learner’, and ‘brain damaged’. Rather use ‘person with a neuro-diverse disability’ or ‘people with learning difficulties’. • Remember that there are many degrees of deafness, and different methods of communicating such as lip-reading or signing. Never say ‘she is deaf and dumb’ but use a more accurate description such as ‘she is deaf/partially deaf/deafened/ hard of hearing’. Information adapted from:  Box 8: Case Study – The Open Institute, Kenya In 2018, The Open Institute launched ‘The Ability Project’, a new collaborative auditing project which aims to collect and compile data on the accessibility of everyday environments using the globally recognised concept of Universal Design. Trained volunteers gather the data, which is later shared with stakeholders such as Government officials, policymakers, media houses, civil engineering firms, industrial designers, architectural firms, students, and people living with disability. By working together, they are able to prompt the start of a much wider discourse about accessible and sustainable solutions. The project has attracted international attention, with BBC Africa and local broadcasters airing coverage of the project in several countries in 2019. During the Covid-19 pandemic, The Open Institute hosted an online workshop with a diverse group of stakeholders to understand the key challenges faced Co-operation and Consultation Page 48 by people with disabilities during the pandemic, including transport access challenges for those who need to travel with an assistant or lip-read. The workshop produced a number of key recommendations and output actions for stakeholders to take forward. Source:  Image Source: The Open Institute Chapter 8 Funding Funding Page 50 Funding 8.1 Why Funding is Important The ability to access funding for achieving universal accessibility of the transport system is important for a number of reasons: • In financial terms, it can cost more to adopt Universal Design practices when developing new infrastructure, systems and services; however, the additional cost is often small relative to the overall cost and represents an investment that enables more people to use it. It is vital to think about funding at the earliest opportunity because transport budgets often have to compete with other government objectives such as health care. • People with disabilities are more likely to experience poverty or earn a belowaverage income – this is true in most countries but particularly so in developing nations. Without financial support, they can find use of public transport unaffordable, limiting their life opportunities. • Some people’s disabilities may prevent them from using the lowest cost travel option for a given trip. For example, some people with disabilities are unable to travel more than a short distance on foot or in a wheelchair, so are unable to make the journey to a bus stop or rail station. They therefore need to rely on door-to-door travel services, which are more costly to provide than regular public transport services. This therefore creates an equality issue which compromises the ability of countries to deliver on commitments under UNCRPD, which to date has been signed by 182 states. These commitments can therefore require extra funding towards infrastructure, services, or subsidising user costs (e.g. concessionary travel). 8.2 Funding Sources There are a variety of funding sources that promoters of new accessible infrastructure or services can consider. These are set out in the paragraphs below. These range Funding Page 51 from national, regional and local sources through to international donor agencies, and are highly context-specific. In some country contexts, funding flows from national government bodies to more local agencies before being spent on transport services and infrastructure. While, in many countries, local or regional agencies are responsible for funding and delivering the transport infrastructure and services that are the focus of the guide, this is by no means a universal model. As such the following list does not seek to be exhaustive, nor artificially distinguish between these funding models. Government funding • Highway investment budgets, which need to include not only the building of roads, but also the adequate provision of accessible footways and pedestrian crossing infrastructure; • Maintenance budgets help fund lower cost improvements to infrastructure and ensure it continues to be in a good state of repair; • Subsidies provided by municipal, state/provincial, or other government agencies which may come from sources such as: • Property taxes, sales taxes, or taxes on activities such as lotteries. The creation of more passenger-friendly transport systems could be a rationale for such taxes; • Taxes on activities such as gambling, tobacco or liquor sales are often viewed as especially appropriate for a cause such as door to door transport for people with disabilities; • Charges and taxes on private car use, car parking and vehicle registration. Operator revenue funding • Passenger fares, which can cover most or all of the cost depending on the circumstances, and the potential for increased patronage; • Cross-subsidy from fixed-route services under concession agreements. This approach requires that regulators work closely with transport operators to make sure the agreements are enforceable and followed up by all parties; • Other revenues generated by the transport operation, especially from advertising on vehicles, shelters, and in waiting areas; or income from property owned by transport Funding Page 52 agencies. Stakeholder funding • Subsidies provided by social service agencies: in many countries, social service agencies such as rehabilitation services provide transport for their clients to their facilities. They may also collaborate with other agencies or NGOs to provide transport for other trip purposes to a broader range of passengers with disabilities. Social service agencies sometimes contract with for-profit transport businesses to provide services for their clients; • Support by businesses which benefit from the patronage of disabled and older people: In some countries, such businesses help provide some of the transport costs for disabled customers. Alternatively, businesses could advertise on door to door vehicles. Voluntary donation funding • Donation of vehicles: in a great many cities and countries, from Mexico to Malaysia, accessible vans and other vehicles have been donated by companies, foundations, religious bodies, embassies, foreign aid agencies, wealthy individuals, NGOs and others to reduce the cost of door to door services by eliminating the major cost of procuring accessible vehicles. These donated vehicles are usually operated by social service or government agencies but could be operated by for-profit companies under contract with such agencies; • Donation of labour: door to door services in some countries benefit from volunteer drivers. Such drivers need to be properly trained, supervised, and insured at levels appropriate to their society; • Individual contributions to cover the cost of door to door services: the feasibility of this approach varies from one country to another. In some cities, citizens can voluntarily add on a contribution, usually in a separate envelope, when paying their water or electricity bill, or a tax bill. In some cases, individuals have left funds in their wills to support such services. International financial institutions • International financial institutions (IFIs) such as the World Bank, the African Funding Page 53 Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank, provide loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects, including improvements to transport that promote inclusion and accessibility. For example, the World Bank offers funding to middle-income countries at interest rates lower than the rates on loans given by commercial banks. Money is offered at zero interest to the poorest developing countries that often cannot find other sources of loans. Repayments are also made over a longer period of time than offered by commercial banks. Whilst countries do eventually pay back their loans, the system provides some flexibility in the terms of the loan. Not for profit organisations • Not-for-profit organisations and charities may be an alternative source of funding for smaller sums. The Eastern Alliance for Safe & Sustainable Transport (EASST) is a not-for-profit organisation which offers grant funding to its partners for a variety of transport projects, particularly those which improve road safety. One of their focus areas is ‘Disability, Mobility and Road Risk’, with a focus on making transport accessible and safe for all road users. The FIA Foundation is another such charity, which aims to ensure ‘Safe, Clean, Fair and Green’ mobility for all by funding various mobility and road safety projects. Support from international governments • Funding may also come from international governments. Many developed countries have international aid funds, some of which can provide funding for accessible transport projects. In 2017, the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office launched its Disability Inclusive Development Programme. The programme delivers interventions to support people with disabilities in a number of developing countries, including interventions which improve access to education, jobs, healthcare and which reduce stigma and discrimination. The programme is putting funding into an applied research programme called High Volume Transport (which funded the updating of this publication) to look at ways transport can be made inclusive. It launched a policy brief on Disability Inclusive Public Transport at the World Road Congress in October 2019. Chapter Chapter 9 Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Page 55 Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Once policy goals and legislative mandates for access have been adopted, strategies for on-the-ground implementation need to be formulated. Indeed, how implementation will occur needs to be in the minds of the drafters of policies and laws. The importance of proper implementation strategies is highlighted by the fact that several countries that have legislative frameworks and standards in place for achieving greater access for people with disabilities to transport and the built environment are still struggling to move towards visible implementation. This section presents some brief pointers on strategies for planning and implementing access requirements. These are aimed at implementing authorities and others involved in making access a reality in developing countries. 9.1 Providing New Infrastructure or Services The best time to apply Universal Design best practice is in the early planning and design stages of new infrastructure (such as rail stations, footways, bus shelters, road crossings) to ensure the final output serves as wide a variety of people as possible, including people with disabilities. Equally, universal access of vehicles should be considered when planning new services (e.g. bus rapid transit (BRT)). Although it depends on the scope and nature of the project, experience has shown that access features can usually be included at a small fraction of the overall project cost. This approach requires a policy to be in place at the implementing authority or organisation to check each project for opportunities to upgrade its access features, and to assess the cost implications of each option. These checks should include input from disabled users, representative groups or an accessibility expert. Cost and conflicting requirements may prevent accommodation of everybody’s needs, but it is necessary that acceptable compromise be reached. Whilst the aim should be to provide universal accessibility at project delivery, some Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Page 56 projects will require strategies that implement access regulations incrementally, ideally starting at the very beginning of the planning process. An incremental approach allows authorities to work within their cyclical budget constraints by targeting interventions that are likely to have the highest impact first. An incremental approach can be especially effective when used on phased-delivery projects and masterplans. It is also likely to be most acceptable to the widest range of stakeholders. One of the benefits of an incremental approach is that it allows people with disabilities to test features and solutions and to make timely corrections as new ones are rolled out. Box 9: Case Study - Bonifacio Global City Manila Bonifacio Global City is a financial and lifestyle district in Metro Manila. Development began in the late 1990s on the site of a former military base, and the development provided a ‘blank canvas’ for the design of a new accessible neighbourhood. The district is built on an easy-to-navigate grid plan and boasts a high level of accessibility from its wide evenly surfaced footpaths with ample use of dropped kerbs and pedestrian crossings to its public transport network and 40kph speed limits. The local bus network (BGC Bus) has ramp access, wheelchair spaces with lowered call buttons and operates 24/7. BGC bus offers smartcard contactless payment on the BEEP card, which can be topped up online, in-person or at a machine at locations across the city. The district has an active social media presence and frequently runs public awareness campaigns promoting its high-quality infrastructure and how the district is working to ensure the safety and inclusivity of all pedestrians. See more:  Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Page 57 9.2 Upgrading Existing Infrastructure or Services To upgrade existing infrastructure and services, it is important to first identify key areas within a town or city to deliver targeted access improvements, and then focus on upgrading infrastructure, vehicles, and services within this area to achieve universal accessibility. The major advantage of this approach is that it maximises the benefit achieved for the investment, by deploying access improvements in a coordinated way. When identifying key areas, consideration should be given to: • Major commuting corridors which would serve a high volume of travellers; • Local neighbourhoods complementing the corridors, including local centres, parks, places of worship, care homes, day centres and medical facilities; • Trip destinations that attract a high volume of travellers (shopping centres, medical facilities, places of worship); • Areas that have already been earmarked for other redevelopment or maintenance projects (e.g. if a road or footpath is being re-surfaced, it may be a good time to install kerb ramps and tactile features for pedestrians with disabilities). Priority areas should include both origins and destinations frequented by disabled travellers, so as to ensure a fully accessible travel chain is provided from door to door. It is also important to consider the journeys that disabled people may need or want to make but Figure 3: A potential candidate for improvement in Kenya. High pedestrian flows use this route to access the railway station. Image Source: ASIRT Kenya Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Page 58 are currently unable to do because of barriers. Improvements could thus encompass footway upgrades, kerb ramps and raised crosswalks to better serve local noncommuting and pedestrian activities. Key areas could be improved incrementally, starting with one priority area, and extending it or adding new ones as resources and experience allow. 9.3 Access Audits Access audits are technical evaluations of transport facilities to systematically assess the level of barrier-free access provided by a facility or service. They can be used by a planning department to identify what needs to be done before designing the upgrading of a facility or area or before designing new infrastructure. The audit can be performed by staff themselves, but it can be particularly helpful to get local users with disabilities to participate. This helps ensure that there is actually access for people with disabilities. In either case, it is important that clear guidelines are followed to ensure the audits are performed in an equitable and knowledgeable manner using objective and measurable criteria. Guides have been published in many countries to facilitate this. Strategies for Planning, Implementing and Enhancing Accessible Transport Provisions Page 59 Box 10: Case Study - Accessibility Auditing in Kuala Lumpur The City of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, has set up an “implementation framework for its accessibility standards for the built environment, including a comprehensive monitoring and enforcement system, from design to postconstruction.” Under Kuala Lumpur’s Action Plan, all new construction and retrofitting works must follow universal design principles. For construction to be approved, the submitted building plans must comply with the accessibility standards. To enforce these standards, a network of auditors is established including Access Officers, an Access Advisory Group, Access Inspectors and Access Auditors. All audits are conducted with persons with disabilities. Auditing is subsequently implemented in the following ways: Monitoring: During the construction, access auditors inspect the facility and have the option to issue a stop-work order. After construction, follow-up inspections are carried out. Enforcement: Enforcement personnel consist of Access Officers, the Access Advisory Group, Access Inspectors, and Access Auditors. Access statements, inspections and audits are used to monitor and enforce accessibility standards. Awareness raising and training: Awareness-raising programmes create a constant dialogue, offer workshops for professionals and pilot projects as benchmarking. 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Innovative Policy 2014 on Accessibility. Kuala Lumpur: Monitoring and enforcing accessibility. Available from: https://zeroproject.org/view/project/fd2a7ee3-5123-eb11-a813-000d3ab9b226 (date last accessed 02/12/2021) Appendix B: Image Permissions Appendix B: Image Permissions Page 66 Image Permissions All image licenses were valid at date of publication. Figure 1: Map showing countries that have ratified the UNCRPD Image produced by author. Figure 2: Three stages in developing policy and legislation Image produced by author. Figure 3: A potential candidate for improvement in Kenya. High pedestrian flows use this route to access the railway station. Image produced courtesy of ASRIT Kenya. Reproduced with permission. Box 2: Examples of challenges people with disabilities experience when using transport services First and second image produced courtesy of ASRIT Kenya. Reproduced with permission. Final image produced by author. Box 3: Case Study - REDI (Network for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) Image produced courtesy of REDI. Reproduced with permission. Box 6: Case Study - The UK Equality Act 2010 Logo produced courtesy of UK Government. Reproduced with permission. Image produced by author. Box 8: Case Study – The Open Institute, Kenya Image produced courtesy of The Open Institute. Reproduced with permission. Appendix B: Image Permissions Page 67 Box 9: Bonifacio Global City Manila Image produced courtesy of Bonifacio Global City Twitter page. Reproduced within the terms of the site. Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 69 Appendix A: Advocacy organisations Albania Albanian National Council of Disabled People (NCDPO) Angola Federation of Organisations of Disabled People in Angola (FAPED) Antigua and Barbuda Antigua & Barbuda Association of Persons with Disabilities (ABAPD) Argentina Fundación Rumbos Australia Australian Federation of Disability Organisations AFDO Austria Independent Living Austria (Selbstbestimmt Leben Österreich) (ILA) Azerbaijan The Society "For International Cooperation of Disabled People of Azerbaijan Bahamas Disabled Persons ' Organization (DPO) Bangladesh Bangladesh Protibandhi Kallyan Somity BPKS Barbados Barbados National Organization of the Disabled Inc. (BARNOD Inc.) Belarus Belarussian Society of the Handicapped Belize Belize Assembly for Persons with Diverse Abilities (BAPDA) Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 70 Benin Federation des Associations de Personnes Handicapées du Benin Botswana Botswana Society of People With Disabilities BOSPED Burkina Faso Federation Burkinabe des Associations pour la Promotion des Personnes Handicapées FEBAH Burundi Union des Personnes Handicapees du Burundi (UPHB) Cambodia The Cambodian Disabled Peoples' Organization (CDPO) Cameroon CAFOD - UNAPHAC Canada Council of Canadians with Disabilities International Centre for Accessible Transportation - Le Centre International d'Accessibilité aux Transports Cape Verde Associacao Caboverdana de Deficientes (ACD) Central African Republic Union Centrafricaine de la Fraternité Chrétienne des Malades et Handicapés Physiques China China Disabled Persons Federation (CDPF) Cook Islands Cook Islands Nation Disability Council Costa Rica Federación Costarricense de Organizaciones de Personas con Discapacidad Cuba Asociación Cubana de Limitados Físicos Motores (ACLIFIM) Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 71 Czech Republic Czech National Disability Council (CNDC) Democratic Republic of Congo Intercommunautaire Congolais pour les Personnes avec Handicap - CICPH Dominica Dominica Association of Persons with Disabilities Inc. (DAPD Inc.) Dominican Republic Federación Nacional de Discapacitados Dominicanos (FENADID) Ecuador Federación Nacional de Ecuatorianos con Discapacidad Física (FENEDIF) Egypt The Arab Organization of Persons with Disabilities (AOPD) El Salvador Asociación Cooperativa de Grupo Independiente Pro Rehabilitación Integral (ACOGIPRI) Estonia Independent Living Estonia Ethiopia Federation of Ethiopian Associations of Persons with Disabilities (FEAPD) Ethiopian Center for Disability and Development Fiji Fiji Disabled Peoples Association Gabon Handicap sans Frontières Gambia Gambia Federation of the Disabled (GFD) Ghana Ghana Federation of the Disabled (GFD) Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 72 Greece Paraplegics Association of Greece Grenada Grenada National Council of the Disabled (GNCD) Guatemala Coordinadora de Organizaciones de Personas con Discapacidad de Guatemala (COPDIGUA) Guinea Federation Guineenne Pour La Promotion Des Associations De et pour Personnes Handicapees (FEGUIPAH) Guyana Guyana Council of Organisation for Persons with Disabilities (GCOPD Haiti National Network Association for the Integration of Disabled Persons (RANIPH) Honduras Fundación Hondureña de Rehabilitación e Integración del Limitado (FUHRIL) Hong Kong The Association for Universal Accessibility Hong Kong (AUAHK) Iceland The Organization of Disabled in Iceland OBI India National Centre for Promotion of Employment for Disabled People (N.C.P.E.D.P.) Svayam Indonesia Persatuan Penyandang Cacat Indonesia (Indonesia Disabled People Association) Iraq Iraqi Alliance for Disability Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 73 Ivory Coast Federation des Associations Des personnes Handicapees de Cote d'Ivoire (FAHCI) Jamaica Combined Disabilities Association Japan Japan National Assembly of Disabled Peoples´ International (DPI-Japan ) Jordan Coalition of Jordanian DPOs Lao PDR Lao Disabled People's Association (LDPA) Latvia The Latvia Umbrella Body for Disability Organizations - Sustento Lebanon Lebanon Council for disabled people Lesotho Lesotho National Federation of Organizations of the Disabled (LNFOD) Liberia National Union Of Disabled (NUOD) Macedonia Polios Plus - Movement Against Disability Madagascar Plateforme Des Federations Des Personnes Handicapees De Madagascar (PFPH) Malawi Federation of Disability Organizations of Malawi (FEDOMA) Malaysia Malaysian Confederation of the Disabled (MCD) Society of the Disabled Persons Penang (SDPP) Beautiful Gate Foundation for the Disabled Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 74 Maldives Maldives Association of the Disabled People Mali Federation Malienne des Associations de Handicapés Malta Maltese Council of Disabled Persons Mauritius Physically Handicapped Welfare Association (PHWA) Mexico Libre Acceso Mongolian Disabled Peoples International of Mongolia Montserrat Montserrat Association for Persons with Disabilities Inc. (MAPD Inc.) Morocco Morocco Federation for PwDs Mozambique Forum das Associades dos deficientes de Mozambique (FAMOD) Namibia National Federation of People with Disabilities in Namibia (NFPDN) Nepal National Federation of the Disabled-Nepal New Zealand Disabled Persons Assembly (New Zealand ) Inc. (DPANZ) Nicaragua Organización de Revolucionarios Discapacitados , (ORD) Niger Fédération Nigerienne des Personnes Handicapées (FNPH) Nigeria Joint National Association Of Person With Disabilities (JONAPWD) Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 75 Pakistan Pakistan Disabled People Organization (PDPO) (DPI-Pakistan) Palestine Palestinian Disability Coalition Palestinian general union people with disability Panama ASOCIACION NACIONAL DE PERSONAS IMPEDIDAS(ANPI) Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Assembly of Disabled Persons (PNGDA) PNG Assembly of Disabled People (PNGADP) Paraguay ARIFA (Asociación de Rehabilitación de Impedidos Físicos del Paraguay Fundación Saraki Peru Confederación Nacional de Discapacitados del Perú (CONFENADIP) Centro de Atención a Personas con Discapacidad Intelectual Grave (CADIG-APROMIPS) Philippines Philippines National Federation of Persons with Disabilities in the Philippines, Inc. Portugal Associacion Portuguesa de Deficie Puerto Rico Asociación Mayagüezana de Personas con Impedimentos (AMPI) Republic of Korea Disabled People´s International Korea (DPIK) Republic of the Congo Union Nationale des Handicapés du Congo (UNHACO) Russia All Russian Society of Disabled People Appendix C: Advocacy organisations 75 Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 76 Rwanda National Union of Disabilities Organisations of Rwanda (NUDOR) Samoa Nuanua O Le Alofa, Disability Advocacy Organisation in Samoa Senegal Fédération Sénégalaise des Associations de Personnes Handicapées Comité des Femmes de la Fédération Sénégalaise des Associations De Personnes Handicapées Seychelles Seychelles Disabled People Association Sierra Leone Disability Awareness Action Group Singapore Singapore Disabled People's Association (DPA Singapore) Slovak Republic Alliance of Organizations of Disabled Peoples Slovakia Slovenia YHD Association for the theory and culture of handicap Solomon Islands People With Disabilities Solomon Islands (PWDSI) Somalia Somali Disability Empowerment Network South Africa Disabled People South Africa (DPSA) Spain Confederacion Coordinadora Estatal de Minusvalidos Fisicos De Espana (COCEMFE) Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Confederation of Organizations of the Handicapped People St. Kitts and Nevis St. Kitts Nevis Association of Disabled Persons Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 77 St. Lucia National Council of and for Persons with Disabilities (NCPD) St. Vincent and the Grenadines National Society of Persons with Disabilities (NSPD) Sudan Sudan Union for PwD Swaziland Federation of the Disabled in Swaziland FODSWA Sweden Independent Living Institute (ILI) Taiwan Eden Social Welfare Foundation Tanzania SHIVYAWATA (Tanzania Federation of Persons with Disabilities Tchad Union des Association des Personnes Handicapées du Tchad Thailand Disabilities Thailand association (DTH) Togo Fédération Togolaise des Associations de Personnes Handicapées Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Chapter of Disabled People's International (TT/DPI) Turkey The Turkish Disability Education and Solidarity Foundation (ÖZEV) Uganda National Union Of Disabled Persons Of Uganda (NUDIPU) Ukraine National Assembly of People with Disabilities in Ukraine NAPD Appendix C: Advocacy organisations Page 78 United Kingdom United Kingdoms Disabled Peoples Council (UKDPC) Motivation UK United States United States International Council on Disabilities (USICD) Access Exchange International (AEI) Inter-American Institute on Disability (IiDi) Mobility International USA The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) Vanuatu Disability Promotion & Advocacy Association(DPA Vanuatu) Yemen Yemeni Forum for People with Disabilities Zambia Zambia Federation Of the Disabled ZAFOD Zimbabwe Federation of Organisations of Disabled People in Zimbabwe FODPEZ Global advocacy 1 Disabled Peoples International 2 Humanity & Inclusion 3 Rehabilitation International 4 Global Alliance on Accessible Technologies and Environments Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 80 Appendix B: Design and delivery guides Access to transport for disabled people Author/s: Louise Butcher, House of Commons Language: English Year: 2018 Link: https://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN00601/SN00601. pdf Accessible bus stop design guidance Author/s: Transport for London Language: English Year: 2017 Link: https://content.tfl.gov.uk/bus-stop-design-guidance.pdf Addressing transport safety and accessibility for people with a disability in developing countries: a formative evaluation of the Journey Access Tool in Cambodia Author/s: Julie A. King, Mark J. King, Niki Edwards, Sara A. Hair, Sarim Cheang, Anita Pearson & Sophie Coelho Language: English Year: 2018 Link: https://eprints.qut.edu.au/122932/1/122932.pdf Bridging the Gap: Your role in transporting children with disabilities to school in developing countries Author/s: Access Exchange International (AEI) Language: English Year: 2017 Link: https://www.globalride-sf.org/TransportingChildren/GuideToSchool.pdf Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 81 Conduct an accessibility audit in low and middle income countries Author/s: Handicap International Language: English Year: 2014 Link: https://asksource.info/sites/default/files/accessibilityaudit_pg13.pdf Design Standards for Accessible Railway Stations Author/s: Department for Transport Language: English Year: 2015 Link:https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/918425/design-standards-accessible-stations.pdf Disability at a Glance 2019: Investing in Accessibility in Asia and the Pacific — Strategic Approaches to Achieving Disability-inclusive Sustainable Development Author/s: Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Language: English Year: 2019 Link: https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/d8files/knowledge-products/SDDDAG-2019.pdf Disability Hate Crime on Public Transport Author/s: Communities Inc Language: English Year: 2019 Link: https://communitiesinc.org.uk/2020/04/15/dialogue-debriefs-2/ Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 82 Doing Transport Differently How to access public transport – a guide for everyone with lived experience of disability or health conditions Author/s: Royal Association for Disability Rights (RADAR) Language: English Year: 2011 Link: http://accessinlondon.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/Doing-Transport-Differently-RADAR.pdf Footpath Design: A guide to creating footpaths that are safe, comfortable, and easy to use Author/s: Institute for transportation & development policy Language: English Year: 2013 Link: https://www.itdp.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/05.-Footpath-Design_Handout.pdf Guidelines for public transport infrastructure and facilities Author/s: New Zealand Transport Agency Language: English Year: 2014 Link: https://nzta.govt.nz/assets/consultation/guidelines-for-public-transport-infrastructure/docs/guidelines-pt-infrastructure-draft.pdf Good Practices of accessible urban development Author/s: United Nations Language: English Year: 2016 Link:https://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/desa/good_practices_in_accessible_urban_development_october2016.pdf Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 83 A guide to inclusive cycling Author/s: Wheels for Wellbeing Language: English Year: 2020 Link: https://wheelsforwellbeing.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/FC_WfW-Inclusive-Guide_FINAL_V03.pdf Guidelines for pedestrian facilities Author/s: Indian Roads Congress Language: English Year: 2012 Link: https://law.resource.org/pub/in/bis/irc/irc.gov.in.103.2012.pdf Nueva Guía Básica de Derechos de Accesibilidad para personas con Discapacidad Author/s: Defensoría del Pueblo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Language: Spanish Year: Unknown Link: https://en.calameo.com/read/002682399da970f53e96f?page=1 The Inclusion Imperative: Towards Disability-inclusive and Accessible Urban Development Author/s: Disability Inclusive and Accessible Urban Development Network Language: English Year: 2016 Link: https://www.cbm.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/The-Inclusion-Imperative-Towards-Disability-Inclusive-and-Accessible-Urb....pdf Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 84 Inclusive mobility: a guide to best practice on access to pedestrian and transport infrastructure Author/s: Department for Transport Language: English Year: 2021 Link: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/inclusive-mobility-making-transport-accessible-for-passengers-and-pedestrians Improving accessibility in transport: infrastructure projects in the Pacific Islands Author/s: Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility Language: English Year: Unknown Link:https://www.theprif.org/sites/default/files/documents/prif_transport_report_ web.pdf Improving Accessibility to Transport for People with Limited Mobility (PLM) Author/s: World Bank Language: English Year: 2013 Link:https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/17592/Accessibility0Report0Final.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Lo Urbano y lo Humano. Hábitat y Discapacidad Author/s: Silvia Aurora Coriat Language: Spanish Year: 2003 Link:http://www.rumbos.org.ar/sites/default/files/LO%20URBANO%20Y%20LO%20 HUMANO-low.pdf Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 85 Manual de Accesibilidad Universal Author/s: Corporación Ciudad Accesible Boudeguer & Squella ARQ Language: Spanish Year: 2003 Link: https://www.ciudadaccesible.cl/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/manual_accesibilidad_universal1.pdf Making access happen: Promoting and planning transport for all A guide for advocates and planners Author/s: Access Exchange International (AEI) Language: English, Spanish Year: 2002 Link: https://www.independentliving.org/mobility/rickert200302.pdf Mobility for all: Accessible Transportation Around the World Author/s: Access Exchange International (AEI) Language: English Year: 2002 Link: https://www.independentliving.org/mobility/mobility.pdf Paratransit for mobility-impaired persons in developing regions: Starting up and scaling up Author/s: Access Exchange International (AEI) Language: English/Spanish Year: 2012 Link: https://www.globalride-sf.org/paratransit/Guide.pdf Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 86 A Review of International Best Practice in Accessible Public Transportation for Persons with Disabilities Author/s: United Nations Year: 2010 Link:https://g3ict.org/publication/review-of-international-best-practices-in-accessible-public-transportation-for-persons-with-disabilities Roads for all: Good practice guide for roads Author/s: Transport Scotland Language: English Year: 2019 Link:https://www.transport.gov.scot/media/43830/roads-for-all-good-practiceguide-for-roads-july-2013.pdf Safe and accessible public transport for all Author/s: International Association of Public Transport (UITP) Language: English Year: 2019 Link: https://hi.org/sn_uploads/document/190518-sdgs_uitpHI_REPORT_LRes.pdf Guidance on the use of tactile paving surfaces Author/s: Department for Transport Language: English Year: 2021 Link:https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/inclusive-mobility-using-tactile-paving-surfaces Appendix D: Design and delivery guides Page 87 Urban Street Design Guidelines Pune Author/s: Pune Municipal Corporation / ITDP Language: English Year: 2016 Link:https://www.itdp.in/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Urban-street-design-guidelines.pdf Appendix E: Further Research Papers and case studies Appendix E: Further Research Papers and case studies Page 89 Appendix C: Further Research Papers and case studies Access to urban transportation system for individuals with disabilities Author/s: N.N. Sze, Keith M. Christensen Year: 2017 Link:https://ira.lib.polyu.edu.hk/bitstream/10397/80048/1/Sze_Urban_Transportation_System.pdf Challenges and Successes in the Application of Universal Access. Principles in the Development of Bus Rapid Transport Systems in South Africa Author/s: Thompson, P Year: 2008 Link: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/2/589/pdf Diseño inclusivo y diseño universal Author/s: Silvia Coriat Year: 2011 Link:http://www.rumbos.org.ar/sites/default/files/D.%20inclusivo%20y%20d.%20 universal.%20Coriat.%202011.pdf EDF report on the situation of passengers with disabilities 2015 Author/s: European Disability Forum (EDF) Year: 2015 Link:https://view.officeapps.live.com/op/view.aspx?src=http%3A%2F%2Fold.edf-feph. org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fedf_report_passenger_rights_2015_0.doc&wdOrigin=BROWSELINK Appendix E: Further Research Papers and case studies Page 90 Empowering People with Disabilities Using Urban Public Transport Author/s: J.Schlingensiepen, E.Naroska, T.Bolten, O.Christen, S.Schmitz, C.Ressel Year: 2015 Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978915003832/pdf?md5=01238e8516dc9b63e24882ca8485d908&pid=1-s2.0-S2351978915003832-ma in.pdf Enhanced accessibility for people with disabilities living in urban areas Author/s: Venter C J, Savill T, Rickert T, Bogopane H, Venkatesh A, Camba J, Mulikita N, Stone J and Maunder D Year: 2002 Link:https://ecommons.cornell.edu/bitstream/handle/1813/76514/Enhanced_Accessibility_for_people.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Evaluating a GPS-Based Transportation Device to Support Independent Bus Travel by People with Intellectual Disability Author/s: Daniel K. Davies; Steven E. Stock; Shane Holloway; Michael L. 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Kamruzzaman, Tan Yigitcanlar, Jay Yang and Mohd Afzan Mohamed Year: 2016 Link:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0233/722d579bb481017756068f490d63b642e34b.pdf Practical solutions for transport access of urban residents with disabilities Author/s: Venter C J, Maunder D, Stone J, Venkatesh A, deDeus K and Munthali D. Year: 2004 Link: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Practical-solutions-for-transport-access-of-urban-Venter/1b755c955e9dd95894f03371f8cbef31b78605a7#paper-header Public transport and people with disabilities the experiences of non-users Author/s: Oksenhalt K., Aarhaug J. Year: 2016 Link: http://universaldesignaustralia.net.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/public-transport-and-people-with-disabilities.pdf Saskatoon Bus Rapid Transit Accessibility Author/s: Saskatoon City Council Year: 2018 Link: https://pub-saskatoon.escribemeetings.com/filestream.ashx?DocumentId=66125 Appendix E: Further Research Papers and case studies Page 93 The taxi industry and transportation for people with disabilities: implications for universal access in a metropolitan municipality Author/s: Lister H, Dunpath R. Year: 2016 Link:https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303953057_The_taxi_industry_and_transportation_for_people_with_disabilities_implications_for_universal_access_in_a_metropolitan_municipality/link/5c90d42445851564fae71677/ download Transport and Access to Inclusive Education in Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe Author/s: Maria Kett, Marcella Deluca Year: 2016 Link: https://www.cogitatiopress.com/socialinclusion/article/download/502/502 Transport Policy and Social Inclusion Author/s: Ricci M., Pankhurst G. Year: 2016 Link: https://www.cogitatiopress.com/socialinclusion/article/view/668/668 Integrated Transport Planning Ltd 1 Broadway Nottingham NG1 1PR Tel: +44 (0)115 824 8250 Email: email@example.com Web: www.itpworld.net Enhancing the mobility of disabled people Part 1: Guidelines for policy makers March 2022 ROAD NOTE 21