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Safe Ways

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SAFE WAYS A road safety education resource written by Gill Murray. This document is extracted from TRL Report 265 Improving road safety education in developing countries; Ghana, by I. A. Sayer, C. J. Palmer, G. Murray and J. Guy (1997). ‘Safe Ways’ is a road safety education booklet intended for use by primary school teachers as a teaching aid, to increase the awareness of young children of the danger on roads. The booklet, though written for Ghana, has more general application and hence is included here for all. The topics covered are: · Walking safely · Observing the road environment · Using protected crossings · How to cross safely when there are no protected crossings · Choosing safe routes as pedestrians Each lesson builds on the previous lessons and provides a broad experience of road safety. Lessons are designed to be presented once a week in periods of about one hour each, to ensure that learning is gradually increased. Each lesson includes a list of objectives for the lesson, details on preparation, suggestions for activities inside and outside the classroom (including practical work), and a homework section. The principles in Safe Ways are designed to be taught by active participation. The approach is to teach children safe behaviour by giving them practical experience near roads. The poster at the end called ‘Getting There Safely’ has been broken down into eight A4 pages. These can be printed out and the pieces stuck together to make up a large poster for the wall. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 'Safe Ways' has been developed by the Transport Research Laboratory UK (TRL) and was funded by the British Department for International Development (DFID). It is based on research carried out by the TRL in the UK and in Ghana. The author appreciates the advice given by her colleagues Jill Davies and Jill Guy. She is particularly grateful for the contribution and assistance of Jill Guy in restructuring the resource. These materials could not have been completed without the co-operation and help of Mr Clocuh (Director), and Mrs Patience Anson-Yevu (Assistant Director) of the District Education Office, Accra Metropolis, Ghana, and also Justice Amegashie, Director of the Ghanaian National Road Safety Committee. Thanks are also extended for the support of the head teachers, teachers and children who used this resource or helped in testing it. Copyright TRL Ltd, 1997. The views expressed in this document are not necessarily those of the Department for International Development. i CONTENTS Page Background1 Introduction2 Aims of the Project3 Summary of the Pack4 About this Resource5 Lesson 1:Stepping Out7 Lesson 2:Looking and Telling11 Lesson 3:Zebras and Other Crossings15 Lesson 4:Seeing and Being Seen19 Lesson 5:Getting There Safely23 Additional Activities for P5s27 Curriculum Links29 Topic Links30 Example of a Trail Observation Sheet for Pupils31 Example of a Green Cross Code Poster32 Homework33 "Getting There Safely" PosterAt end SAFE WAYS A Pedestrian Road Safety Education Resource For Ghana BACKGROUND In Ghana recent research has shown that almost one third of the country's pedestrian deaths were to CHILDREN UNDER 16. These pedestrian deaths usually happen when children are crossing roads. They are often away from junctions and involve a vehicle such as a bus or truck. Most of these accidents happen in town areas. It is likely that these accidents are occurring on roads the pedestrians know quite well! As teachers we know that children often do things without thinking. They are especially at risk in the road environment. Their attention is easily lost, they can forget what they are doing, and they find it hard to judge speed. Children are not small adults. They do not think like adults or have our experience. They can think it is safe to cross a road when it is not, for example: § if their view is blocked by one vehicle being in front of another § if parked cars stop them from seeing other vehicles § if they do not see vehicles which are coming out of driveways. Also, children often take the quickest route across a road, instead of walking a little further to a safer place. Teachers can help children to learn about their local traffic environment. Children need to know about what is safe behaviour and what is dangerous, and why. They also need to learn where and when it is safe to cross roads. All this can be best achieved by practice near real roads close to home and school. In Ghana older children are often responsible for taking younger brothers, sisters, and family friends to school. Therefore the journey to and from school can be used as a chance for P5s to re-enforce class learning. It can also be used as an opportunity for children who have been taught road safety to pass on their knowledge to younger children. 1 INTRODUCTION The SAFE WAYS resource aims to make P5 (10 - 11 year olds) children safer pedestrians. It gives them exciting opportunities to learn in the classroom and school compound and in practical situations outside near real roads. They can learn near school and on their journeys to and from school. Teachers know that children learn best by doing the real thing. For example they learn to kick a ball, play the drums, or skip by doing those things, and not just by being told. It is the same with learning how to keep themselves safe - children must practice the theory they have learnt in the classroom, on the compound and near roads. Ideally you, the teacher, should supervise this outside learning, but if you cannot do this in school time, it is essential that you set the homework and discuss it in the following lesson. This resource contains elements of Environment, Mathematics, English, and Science (see page 29 for diagram). It can, however, be used as a pure road safety project, and would fit in well in the present Life Skills curriculum. It is structured in 5 lessons and would be best presented once a week in periods of about one hour. It is important to start at the beginning of the project and work through to the end, so that the children's learning is gradually increased. The key learning points are: · walking safely · crossing safely · identifying safe routes to and from school. Crossing safely 2 AIMS OF THE PROJECT To make P5 children safer pedestrians by: ·acquiring more knowledge about their local traffic environment · understanding the dangers of traffic · improving their pedestrian behaviour ·repeating relevant road safety messages to family and friends, especially younger children. Being responsible for younger members of the family 3 SUMMARY OF SAFE WAYS LESSON 1STEPPING OUT (Where and how to walk) Classroom Work:Accidents and pedestrian behaviour are discussed. Practical Work:Practice in walking and stopping takes place in the compound. Homework:Learning is reinforced and the children are encouraged to pass on their knowledge to younger children. LESSON 2LOOKING AND TELLING (Observing the road environment) Classroom Work:Rules for safe walking are discussed. Practical Work:This looks at what can be found on the footpath and road 1 and takes note of observations made from the compound and/or near the road. Homework:Observation work continues and includes road signs. LESSON 3ZEBRAS AND OTHER CROSSINGS (Using protected crossing places) Classroom Work:Discussion takes place on what protected crossing places are, their names, and how to make use of them. The Green Cross Code is featured. Practical Work:This takes place in the compound or outside the school, and includes a demonstration of how to use at least one of these crossings. Homework:The personal use of crossings is considered especially on the journey to and from school. Passing on knowledge to younger children is encouraged. LESSON 4SEEING AND BEING SEEN (Crossing where there are no protected crossing places) Classroom Work:There is a classroom discussion on how to choose the safest place to cross when no protected crossing places exist. Practical Work:Practice in the selection of a "safe" place, and crossing in a safe manner is carried out in the compound and/or outside the school. Homework:Using the Green Cross Code is included, and the importance of explaining it simply to younger children. LESSON 5GETTING THERE SAFELY (Choosing the safest route between home and school) Classroom Work:Discussion takes place on the problems encountered on school journeys, and suggestions are made on how to make routes safer. A large poster is studied for this purpose. Practical Work:On the way home pedestrians are observed, and personal routes to and from school to home are considered for their safety value. Homework:Pupils evaluate and try to improve their school route. 4 ABOUT THIS RESOURCE OBJECTIVES These are set out at the beginning of every lesson. They help you to know exactly what you are expecting to achieve, and act as a check list. SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES These have been carefully thought out and tried, to make sure that they work. You will need to give your class time for the discussion work as it is important for the children to gain knowledge from other members of their class. Co out as often as you can. Practical work aids learning (see below for more details). PREPARING You should read through SAFE WAYS before beginning this project to give yourself an idea of what you will need to do and how you might organise yourself and your class. You should also read the lesson notes before each lesson and check that you have done any preparation necessary. This can mean the difference between a successful or an unsuccessful lesson. HOMEWORK Homework is vital to this project because the children are gaining experience of the road environment when they are on various journeys and you are not with them. It helps to re-enforce class learning. When it is time for homework, turn to the relevant homework section at the back of this book. Copy the homework on to the board and ask the children to copy it down into their general homework books, or on to a piece of paper. You should collect and mark the Homework between lessons. PRACTICAL WORK In several lessons practical work near roads is suggested as an option. This needs careful planning and the children's safety must be your main concern. There are several ways you could organise this work. 1)Take out one small group at a time, leaving other groups working inside with monitors/leaders. 2)Take out one small group at a time, while the rest of the class are involved with other school activities like assembly. 3)Take out the whole class but in small groups using other teachers. Send one group off at a time with a few minutes between each group. You will need to tell the other teachers exactly what you need them to do. You may need to call a meeting first to explain things to them. Do not endanger the lives of your children. If the road near your school is very busy it may not be wise to use it for teaching purposes. Select a quiet road or use the school compound. ORGANISING A TRAIL For Lesson 2 a walk near your school is suggested. You must have planned the exact route yourself before taking the children out. This means walking the route yourself to get an idea of what local things the children might take note of, and also to give you some idea of how long a walk would take. You should aim to make it about 30 minutes long, and it should help the children to be more aware of 5 their surroundings by observing and recording what they see. (See example of a pupil sheet on page 31). You do not have to cross any roads to do this work. Child pedestrians start their journey home. Do they know enough about the dangers of the road... …and how to keep themselves safe until they reach home? 6 LESSON 1 STEPPING OUT Where and how to walk Objectives: · To know that traffic is dangerous · To know that they should walk on the pavement / footpath / edge of the road, and not run or play in the road or on the pavement · To know that they should walk facing the traffic if there is no pavement/footpath · To know that they should stop before crossing a road · To know that they should hold hands with younger children and make them walk on the side away from traffic · To know the value of talking to younger children about what they are doing to be safe in the traffic situation. Preparation: Have paper and pens ready if you want the children to record anything. You may need a stick or a piece of rope to mark the edge of the 'road' when doing the work in the compound. Suggested Activities 1. Inside the Classroom: · Write up on the board "Anyone can have a road accident". · Ask the class if anybody has ever had, or nearly had, a road accident? How did it feel? Write up the key words the children give to you e.g. "frightening", "painful". · Get the children to talk about their experience (in pairs or small groups). · Choose a few children to tell the class about what happened to them. 7___EXPERIENCES___ _____SAFETY BASICS_____Describing an accident to the class Notes for the Teacher: You will probably find that almost every child has experienced a near accident and knows what it is like to feel afraid of the traffic. You could let them write down their experiences if there is time. It is interesting to put together a book of the children' s stories. An example of a typical experience is given below: "I was just coming out of my school with some of my friends. It is on a very busy road. We were laughing and talking. We stood by the edge of the road and then jumped the ditch on to the road. I caught my foot on a piece of piping and fell in front of a taxi. Luckily the taxi stopped in time, but I was very scared. After that I went home”. Have a class discussion and try to bring out the following points about behaviour near traffic: ·Traffic is dangerous and can hurt you (make sure the children . know what traffic is) ·roads are for traffic ·the pavement/footpath/edge of the road is for people ·always stop before crossing 8 · hold hands with younger children, and protect them from the traffic · tell and show younger children how to behave safely. 2.Outside the Classroom (in the compound) § Ask the class to run, skip, walk backwards and walk forwards. · Discuss which is the safest way to move along the pavement/footpath/edge of the road. · 2. Mark a line on the ground to be the edge of the road. Ask a few children to show the class how to walk along the pavement with a younger child. (HOLDING HANDS, WALKING ON THE LEFT, AND WITH THE YOUNGER CHILD ON THE SIDE AWAY FROM THE TRAFFIC). · Demonstrate how and where to stand before crossing. (WITH FEET AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE ROAD, AND NOT TOO NEAR THE EDGE). Working in the compound 9_____PRACTICAL__________ Having a discussion in the compound Homework: Copy the homework on to the board. This is to be found at the back of this book. Ask the pupils to complete this homework before the next lesson. 10 LESSON 2 LOOKING AND TELLING Observing the road environment Objectives: · To increase their road safety vocabulary · To know what belongs on the pavement/footpath/edge of the road and what belongs on the road · To recognise and avoid dangers · To improve their looking and listening skills · To be able to identify safe and unsafe behaviour in the traffic environment. Preparation: · Homework from the previous lesson should have been marked. · Have paper and pens ready if you want the children to record anything. · If you intend to take your children on a walk in this lesson you need to have planned it (see page 5 'ABOUT THIS RESOURCE, Organising a Trail'). Suggested Activities 1.Inside the Classroom: Briefly go over the main points from the previous lesson. The children may need to refer to their homework. You might ask: What is traffic? Why should you walk, not run near roads? Why should you walk on the pavement/footpath if there is one? Why should you walk facing the traffic if there is no pavement/footpath/edge of the road? Why should you hold a younger child's hand near roads? 11_____REVISION_____ Why should the younger child walk on the side of you away from the traffic? Why should you stop before crossing? Where should you stand when you want to cross? · Ask the children to look at their homework and discuss the answers they have given. · Ask the children what they have noticed about other people1 s behaviour near roads. Is it safe or unsafe? What makes it safe or unsafe? Write up some of the points made on the board in two columns, one for safe behaviour and one for unsafe behaviour. Note for the Teacher:In this kind of road safety activity children seem to love topoint out other people who have behaved unsafely! Makesure the 'safe' behaviour is highlighted too.Discuss what things are found on the pavement/foot- path/edge of the road, and what things are found on the road. Make a list of each. Say that there might be some dangerous things to look out for around your particular school. Ask the children to see if they can think of anything (e.g. ditches, oil drums, pipes sticking out of the ground, sellers crowding the pavement/footpath). Together can you make a list of rules for safe walking? (e.g. walk do not run; if there is no pavement/footpath walk facing the traffic; hold hands with younger children; stop before crossing). 2.Outside the Classroom (on the pavement OR in the compound) EITHER · 1) Lead the children on a pre-planned observation walk (see page 5 for details of organisation and page 31 for an example of an observation sheet). OR · 2) Stand outside the school near to, but not too close to the road. 12___PRACTICAL___ ___REVISION___ ___________OBSERVATION___________ OR · 3) Stand in the school compound but where you can still see the road and traffic. · Point out things of interest on the footpath/pavement and road. Any special crossing places near to school like footbridges (overbridges) or lollipop stands should be particularly mentioned. Back at school discuss what the class has seen, and how children and other people behaved. An example of unsafe behaviour near the road WORDBANK The following are useful words that the children should learn: TrafficPavementOfficesPoliceman Traffic lightsFootpathFootbridgeDitch BicycleTruckCarWheelchair SpeedSoundsZebraSellers LorryparkLitterCity guardParked cars LorryDirectionBusMotos ShopsPedestrianCurveStalls Pot-holeGutter‘tro-tro’ Truck-Edge of the pushersroad 13___PRACTICAL___ Dangerous things can be found on the pavement/footpath as well as on the road HOMEWORK: Copy the homework on to the board. Ask your pupils to complete this homework before the next lesson. THIS IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IF THE OUTSIDE WORK HAS NOT BEEN DONE IN CLASS TIME. 14 LESSON 3 ZEBRAS AND OTHER CROSSINGS Using protected crossing places Objectives: · To identify and name all the types of protected crossing places that exist in Ghana · To know the Green Cross Code · To know how to cross the road using at least one protected crossing place. Preparation: Homework from the previous lesson should have been marked. Have paper and pens ready if you want the children to record anything. Suggested Activities 1.Inside the Classroom: · Briefly go over two points from the previous lesson. You might ask: Who can remember the list of rules we made about safe walking? Can you think of any more now? · Give out the Homework books and go over the other important points from lesson 2. You might ask: Who can tell me something safe they have seen someone do near roads? Who can tell me something unsafe they have seen someone do near roads? Can you tell me some things you have seen on the road? Can you tell me some things you have seen on the pavement/footpathledge of the road? Who knows the answer to question 4 of the homework? (IT Is BECAUSE TRAFFIC CAN CROSS THE 15___________REVISION___________ PAVEMENT / FOOTPATH / EDGE OF THE ROAD ON TO A DRIVEWAY). Who knows the road sign for children crossing? (YOU COULD ASK ONE CHILD TO DRAW IT ON THE BOARD). · Ask the children if anyone has talked to their younger brothers or sisters or friends about where to walk and how to behave safely. Ask also if anyone has shown them what to do. · Ask the class if anybody knows any special places to cross roads. Discuss what safe places exist nearby, and on routes they frequently use, for example travelling between home and school or going to a friend's house. · You should mention protected crossing places: zebra crossings footbridges (overbridges) traffic lights (with a pedestrian phase) lollipop stands. · Explain the word 'protected'. Talk about how to use these protected crossing places. Stress that not all drivers will stop at these protected crossings so the children should make sure the traffic has stopped before they cross. · You should also mention special people who can make crossing safer e.g. city guards, police · Can the children name any other people? · Talk about how to cross with these special people. · If there is time the children could draw themselves using one of these crossings. 16_____REVISION_____ ________PROTECTED CROSSINGS________________________ · Ask the children how they should cross a road. Suggest there are rules to learn and follow which would help to keep them safe. These rules are called codes. The children need to learn the GREEN CROSS CODE1 : · First find a safe place to cross · Stop by the edge of the road · Look around and listen for on-coming vehicles · If there are vehicles coming let them pass · When no vehicles are coming walk straight across · Keep looking and listening while you cross SEE PAGE 32 FOR A GREEN CROSS CODE POSTER · Help the children to learn this Code, and remind them to use it whenever they cross. Your class might like to set the Green Cross Code to a well known Ghanaian tune. Notes for the Teacher As you go over each point of the Green Cross Code you could talk about the reason for it e.g.: stop even if you think nothing is coming, because you can see better and you have more time stop on the pavement/footpath if there is one and stop near enough to the road to see but not too near the traffic look around because a vehicle may come from behind you or somewhere else unexpected, or they may be quiet like a bicycle listen because you sometimes hear something you have not seen walk because if you run you are more likely to trip over walk straight across because you will not be in danger on the road longer than necessary keep looking and listening while you cross because vehicles might appear after you have started to cross.17_______________________________GREEN CROSS CODE_______________________________ 1 Based on the Green Cross Code in the Ghanaian National Road Safety Committee's Traffic Safety Lessons for Children. 2.Outside the Classroom (on the pavement OR in the compound) · 1.Demonstrate and get the children to demonstrate how to use a zebra and lollipop stand in the school compound. You might like to make your own zebra crossing in the compound using charcoal and small white stones. THEN IF POSSIBLE · 2.Demonstrate and/or get the children to demonstrate how to use at least one protected crossing place on a road near the school. If you cannot do (2) then try to observe a crossing from the school compound and see how other people are behaving. · 3.Back in school. Discuss the children's behaviour and other people's behaviour including drivers. Demonstrating how to use a lollipop stand, inside the classroom (left) and outside on the road (right) Homework: Copy the homework on to the board. Ask the pupils to complete this homework before the next lesson. You could suggest some slogans for their posters, e.g. 'Be Safe - use a zebra', or 'Stay Alive - use the lollipop'. 18__________PRACTICAL__________ LESSON 4 SEEING AND BEING SEEN Crossing where there are no protected crossing places Objectives: · To know how to choose a safe place to cross where no protected crossing places exist · To cross a road themselves without a protected crossing place · To appreciate that pedestrians are vulnerable. Preparation: Homework from the previous lesson should have been marked. Imagine what it is like to be the height of a child. Bend down near a car and note how your vision is restricted by the vehicle. If possible arrange to have one or more cars parked in the safety of the compound for this lesson. Have pens and paper ready if you want the children to record anything. Suggested Activities 1.Inside the Classroom: · Briefly go over some of the points from the previous lesson. You might ask: Who can tell me the Green Cross Code? (WRITE IT UP AS A REMINDER) Who has used the Green Cross Code? Why do you think it helps people to be safer? Has anyone used the Green Cross Code with their younger brothers or sisters? · Give out the Homework books and go over the other important points from lesson 3. You might ask: Who can name all the protected crossing places? Who has used one on their way to or from school? Has anyone now started to use a protected crossing on any journey because it is safer? Has anybody thought of a place that needs a protected crossing? Where is it? What do other people think of that idea? Who has made a poster about using protected crossing places? 19_______________REVISION_______________ · Then ask the class what might be the best place to cross a road if there are no protected crossing places? How do you choose the best place? Discussion should bring out the following ideas: ü Try to cross on a quiet road that is not busy ü Try to cross on a straight road where you can see the driver and he can see you û Try not to cross at busy junctions and cross-roads û Try not to cross near parked cars or driveways û Try not to cross near a curve (THIS IS BECAUSE THEY ALL STOP YOU SEEING VEHICLES AND DRIVERS SEEING YOU). · Remind the class to use the Green Cross Code whenever they are crossing. · Ask the children to suggest a good place to cross where there is no protected crossing near your school. Have a discussion to see if everybody agrees. Pedestrians are vulnerable! 2. Outside the Classroom (on the pavement OR in the compound) 1. EITHER In the compound get the children to stand around some cars. They should touch them and describe what they see and feel (e.g. hard, sharp, big, shiny, solid). Then they should touch their legs or arms, and 20__________ CHOOSING A SAFE PLACE_____ _____ PRACTICAL describe what that feels like (e.g. soft, squashy, smooth). Ask them to imagine what would happen if a car and a person ran into each other. OR Take a soft fruit like a melon and something solid like a large stone. Tell the children to imagine that the melon is a person and the stone is a vehicle. Ask what will happen when they hit each other. Demonstrate what will happen by placing the fruit on the ground and hitting it with the stone! Stress that this is what happens when cars and people have accidents. · 2.Make a mock-up road in the compound to practice crossing skills. You could use the path under a verandah as a pretend pavement and some of the compound ground as a pretend road. You should draw a line on the ground to represent the other side of the road, or use a rope. Ask for some volunteers to demonstrate how to cross (USING THE GREEN CROSS CODE). Discuss how well they performed. You could make it more difficult by getting some children to pretend to be drivers. If there is a quiet road near your school you may wish to practice crossing using the Green Cross Code on that road. · 3.To show how difficult and dangerous it is to cross near a curve - get about twenty children to stand next to each other in a curved line. Another child walks along the outside of the line pretending to be a car, and each child puts their hand up when they can see the 'car'. They may be surprised at how little they can see. You should use this opportunity to remind the children of the importance of the first line of the Green Cross Code : "First find a safe place to cross". a. Stand the children in a curved line all facing outwards1 . 1 Source: Children and Traffic Book 1 by Dr K Jolly (now out of print). 21-----------------------------------------PRACTICAL------------------------------- - b.Get a child to pretend to be a car, and to go along the line. The children put their hand up or shout when they can see the ‘car'. Practising crossing in the compound Homework: Copy the homework on to the board. Ask the children to complete this homework before the next lesson. 22 LESSON 5GETTING THERE SAFELY Choosing the safest route between home and school Objectives: · To put into practice the learning gained so far · To be able to understand a simple road plan and record a safe route · To select, use and record the safest route to and from school. Preparation: Have the poster "Getting There Safely" ready to display later in the lesson. You will find the poster at the back of 'Safe Ways'. Have paper and pens ready. Suggested Activities 1.Inside the Classroom: · Briefly go over some of the points from the previous lesson. You might ask: What are the differences between vehicles and people? Why do people get hurt more easily than vehicles? · Give out the Homework books and go over some of the important points from lesson 4. You might ask: Protected crossings are good places to cross the road but what sort of place should you look for if there are no protected crossing places on your journey? (ON A QUIETER ROAD, A STRAIGHT ROAD, NOT NEAR BUSY JUNCTIONS, NOT NEAR PARKED CARS OR DRIVEWAYS, AND NOT NEAR A CURVE). What code should you always use when crossing? Have you helped some younger children to learn the Green Cross Code? 23_________REVISION__________ ¨ Ask the children to help compile a bar chart about their journeys to school. They could all copy the chart. It could be about: · The most popular way to come to school (on foot, by car, by bus, by truck) · How long the school journey takes (in hours and minutes) · How far away the school is from home (in miles). Use the opportunity to stress that plenty of time should be allowed for travelling. A barchart showing how we get to school · Display the poster "Getting There Safely" where all the class can see it. · Ask the children to look carefully at the poster. Get some children to point out to the class things of interest e.g. petrol station, school, park, stalls, sellers, different vehicles. · Talk to the class about where Samuel and Gifty live and where their school is. · Ask all of the class to think of a safe way for Gifty to get to school. · Choose one child to show the route he/she has chosen for Gifty. Discuss whether this route is safe (the answer should be: cross by the traffic lights with a special light 24____________BARCHARTS_____________ ________SAFE ROUTES TO SCHOOL________ for pedestrians, along the path by the trees, along the footpath and across the road by the lollipop stand). · Repeat this process for Samuel's route from home to school. Get the children to write down the safest route for Samuel. · Remind the class to try to cross roads at safe crossing places such as footbridges (overbridges) lollipop stands, zebra crossings and traffic lights with a pedestrian phase. Otherwise cross in places where there are good views of traffic and where the drivers can see you. · Ask several children to come out individually and describe their routes to school. Discuss how safe they are. · Make sure the children know they must leave plenty of time for any journey, and always practise the Green Cross Code whenever they cross a road. Selecting a safe route sometimes means walking a little further! 25_____ SAFE ROUTES TO SCHOOL _____ 2. Outside the Classroom (on the way home) · Ask the class to observe other school children leaving the school. Are they behaving safely? Are they crossing the road in a safe place? Do you think they are using the Green Cross Code? · Ask the children to think about their own route to and from school. Is it as safe as it can be? Can they change it to make it safer? Children beginning their journeys home from school Homework: Copy the homework on to the board. ALLOW TIME TO MARK THIS IMPORTANT HOMEWORK AND HAVE A SHORT DISCUSSION WITH THE CLASS ABOUT IT AS SOON AS POSSIBLE. 26_____PRACTICAL_____ ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES for P5s If you want to extend this work you might like to try some of the following suggestions. ENGLISH The children could: 1)Interview other people in their own neighbourhood about their fears about traffic and how they think it might be improved. 2)Keep a diary for one day. Write in it all the dangers they are exposed to - at home, on the way to school, at school, after school etc. Discuss answers and how the risks could be made less. 3)Use the MODEL mentioned below to get the children to discuss safe routes. 4)Imagine an alien from another planet has landed in Ghana. Ask the children to think about what they would tell him about how to keep himself safe. MATHEMATICS The children could: 1)Think about stopping distances. Ask for two children - one to walk and one to run. The two children should start moving when you tell them, and stop as quickly as they can when you tell them to stop. Four other children should be found to observe what is happening: The first observer should note and mark where the walker is when you call STOP The second observer should note and mark where the walker is when s/he actually stops, so that the distance between can be measured The third observer should mark and note where the runner is when you call STOP The fourth observer should note and mark where the runner is when s/he actually stops, so that the stopping distance can be compared to that for the walker. Ask the children what the stopping distances are and why the stopping distances vary (BECAUSE IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO STOP WHEN RUNNING, WHICH IS WHY WE SHOULD ALWAYS WALK NEAR ROADS). 2)Count the number of different vehicles that pass the school entrance in 15 minutes. Display the results on a graph. 27 ENVIRONMENT/SOCIAL STUDIES The children could: 1)Think about the many people who help to keep the community safe. Who are they? What can we do to help others feel safer? 2)Find out what sort of journeys people went on years ago in Ghana and how they travelled about. They could ask their parents and grandparents. 3)Ask a member of the National Road Safety Committee or the police force to come into the school to talk about accidents and how to keep safe. SCIENCE The children could: 1) Find out which colours are the easiest to see and therefore the safest for pedestrians to wear, because they can be seen well by drivers. Think about which colours show up best- black, blue, red, green, white, grey, yellow, orange, brown. Put them into an order starting with the easiest one to see. Next look at material or cards of those colours and check the answers. They could think about whether different colours show up better in the dark, and what this means for walking in the dark. 2)Make a MODEL of the area around your school. This is useful for thinking about safe routes and it gives a more realistic view than a map. Make the MODEL out of paper, wood, card, glue and paint - old boxes work well. Put in roads, footpaths, buildings and any protected crossings. Try to make it as accurate as possible and in proportion. It should be placed on a table and could be left out on the verandah or in the corner of a classroom. When completed a few children at a time should discuss together where they would cross the roads and routes they would choose to get from one place to another. They should move model people around the MODEL. 28 CURRICULUM LINKS Road safety is at present in the Life Skills syllabus and this project as a whole could be used there. Parts of the SAFE WAYS programme also link with other subject areas in the Ghanaian curriculum as shown below: 29 TOPIC LINKS SAFE WAYS could be part of any of the topics below. 30 EXAMPLE OF A TRAIL OBSERVATION SHEET FOR PUPILS (Lesson 2) Use this sheet or make your own one. You should read this through with the children before you go out. 1)Tick these things when you see them. pedestrian carrying goods petrol station zebra crossing driveway across pavement stall advert or poster policeman tree 2)What dangerous things can you see near your school? 2) Tick the vehicles when you see them. truckbus carlorry bicyclemotorcycle 3) How many parked cars are there? Record them as you walk along. Add up the total number. 5)What traffic sounds can you hear? 31 HOMEWORK FOR LESSON 1 1)How do you think it feels to have a road accident? It feels…………………………….. 2) Draw a picture of yourself and a younger child walking near the road. 3)Write down three things you have told younger children. 33 HOMEWORK FOR LESSON 2 1) SAFE things people do near the road: …………………………………………………….… ……………………………………………….……… …………………………………………….………… 2) UNSAFE things people do near the road: ………………………………………………….…… ………………………………………………………. ………………………………………………………. 3)Things I have seen outside: On the roadOn the pavement/footpath……………………..……………………….. ……………………..……………………….. ……………………..……………………….. 4)You should tell a younger child to be careful when walking on the pavement/footpath/edge of the road because: ……………………………………………………… 5)Draw some road signs. 34 HOMEWORK FOR LESSON 3 1) I know all these protected crossing places: ………………………………………………. ………………………………………………. ………………………………………………. ………………………………………………. 2)I use ………. PROTECTED crossings on the way to school. 3)Do you think that any more PROTECTED crossing places should be built by your school? Where? 4)Make a poster about using a PROTECTED crossing place for a younger child. 5) Practice using a PROTECTED crossing place with a younger child. 35 HOMEWORK FOR LESSON 4 1) If there are no protected crossing places I should cross …………………. ……………………………………………………..……………… I should not cross………………………………………………………………. 2) Write down the GREEN CROSS CODE Draw a picture about one part of it. 3) Show some younger children how to use the GREEN CROSS CODE. 36 HOMEWORK FOR LESSON 5 1)When you get home write down the route you took home from school. 2)Do you think your route is the safest route you can take? 3)If it is not, what can you do to make your route safer? 37