Transport response to the COVID-19 pandemic has witnessed a host of short-term actions and policy measures across high, middle and low-income countries. For these short-term actions to be more effective in the long-term, the transport and health sectors need a more integrated approach to make transport more resilient to future pandemics.
This Planning Guide supports decision makers and practitioners in transport and public health planning and provides specific advice for different groups of transport stakeholders, including national ministries, road and rail infrastructure managers, public and private sector transport operators, and freight and logistics organisations. It describes operational planning measures that all transport organisations should take in order to prepare for a pandemic; and describes key long-term measures that national, urban and rural transport agencies should follow to better plan for pandemics.
The Guide can be used by LIC governments and development partners to help plan investments in sustainable transport networks that are resilient to pandemics and that provide mobility for all.
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Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: a Planning Guide Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide COVID -19 Research & Response Transport Recovery Fund March 2021 HVT 029. L1L166 TRL Ltd Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide This research was funded by UK Aid through the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office under the High Volume Transport Applied Research Programme, managed by IMC Worldwide. The views expressed in this guide do not necessarily reflect the UK governmen t’s official policies. Reference No. HVT/L1L166 Lead Organisation TRL Ltd, UK Partner Organisation(s) Title Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide Type of document Project Report Theme Capacity Building Sub -theme Transport Planning Author(s) Kevin McPherson Lead contact Kevin McPherson Geographical Location(s) Global Abstract Transport response to the COVID -19 pandemic has witnessed a host of short -term actions and policy measures across high, middle and low -income countries. For these short -term actions to be more effective in the long -term, the transport and health sectors ne ed a more integrated approach to make transport more resilient to future pandemics. Th is Planning Guide supports decision makers and practitioners in transport and public health planning and provides specific advice for different groups of transport stakeh olders , including national ministries, road and rail infrastructure managers, public and private sector transport operators, and freight and logistics organisations. It describes operational planning measures that all transport organisations should take in order to prepare for a pandemic ; and describes key long -term measures that national, urban and rural transport agencies should follow to better plan for pandemics. The Guide can be used by LIC governments and development partners to help plan investment s in sustainable transport networks that are resilient to pandemics and that provide mobility for all. Keywords COVID -19, Pandemics Funding COVID -19 Research and Response Transport Recovery Fund Acknowledgements TRL is grateful for the advice of Bruce Thompson, Technical Lead on Road and Rail Transport of the HVT Programme. We are also grateful to the Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport that facilitated a consultation webinar with its member countries and gave feedback on the Guide and its applicability in low -income countries. Issue Status Author(s) Reviewed By Approved By Issue Date 1 Draft Kevin McPherson Robin Workman Bruce Thompson 22/12/2020 2 Final Kevin McPherson Robin Workman Bernard O bika 09/03/2021 i Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide Contents OVERVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 1 1. HOW PANDEMICS CREATE A TRANSPORT CRISIS ................................ ................................ ............. 1 1.1 How pandemics disrupt transport ................................ ................................ ................................ 2 1.2 How transport disruptions impact the economy, commerce and livelihoods ............................. 3 1.3 Long -term impacts on transport demand ................................ ................................ .................... 4 1.4 An integrated planning approach for a transport pandemic plan ................................ ................ 4 2. PLANNING GUIDANCE FOR TRANSPORT ORGANISATIONS ................................ .............................. 5 2.1 Planning for transport service managers ................................ ................................ ...................... 5 2.2 The planning role of the ministry of transport ................................ ................................ ............. 6 3. LONG -TERM PLANNIN G FOR PANDEMICS & SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT ................................ ........ 8 3.1 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with universal access goals ................................ 8 3.2 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with efficiency goals ................................ ........... 9 3.3 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with safety goals ................................ ................ 9 3.4 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with green mo bility goals ................................ . 10 3.5 How improving universal access can contribute to resilience to pandemics ............................. 10 4. INTEGRATING OPERATIONAL AND LONG -TERM MEASURES FOR PANDEMIC RESILIENT TRANSPORT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 11 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1: Resources ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 14 Tables Table 1: Operational planning measures ................................ ................................ .............................. 11 Table 2: Long -term planning measures linked to GRA goals ................................ ................................ 12 Table 3: Long -term planning measures specific to universal access ................................ .................... 13 ii Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide ACRONYMS AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome COVID -19 Co rona virus Disease 2019 GDP Gross Domestic Product GRA SuM4All Global Roadmap of Action Towards Sustainable Mobility HIC High Income Country HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HVT High Volume Transport ICT Information and Communications Technology IRF International Roads Federation ITF International Transport Forum LIC Low Income Country LMIC Low er Middle Income Country NGO Non -Governmental Organisation PIARC World Road Association PPE Personal Pro tective Equipment SSATP Africa Transport Policy Program me SuM4All Sustainable Mobility Program for All TIR Convention on International Transport of Goods TRB Transportation Research Board (United States ) TUMI Transformative Urban Mobility Initiative UIC International Union of Railways UITP International Association of Public Transport WHO World Health Organisation 1 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide OVERVIEW Transport response to the COVID -19 pandemic has witnessed a host of short -term actions and policy measures across high, middle and low - income countries (LICs). For these short -term actions to be more effective in the long -term, the transport and health sec tors need a more integrated approach to make transport more resilient to future pandemics. During a pandemic transport is critical to maintaining access to vital services that support economic activities and livelihoods. However , transport acts as a vector that spreads contagious diseases, and until recently most transport policies and strategies paid little heed to public health. Accordingly , the transport sector in urban and rural areas must plan to increase its resilien ce to future pandemics and do as mu ch as it can to constrain the spread of pandemics. This Planning Guide is based on a literature review of international good practice of transport agencies around the world in their response to COVID -19, as well as to other pandemics and natural disasters. The Guide supports decision makers and practitioners in transport and public health planning and provides specific advice for different groups of transport stakeholders from national ministries, road and rail infrastructure managers, public and private sector transport operators, and freight and logistics organisations . • Part 1 provides an overview of the impact of recent pandemics on the transport sector around the world. It demonstrates the importance of the transport sector during pandemics and highlights why improving resilience is so important. • Part 2 describes operational planning measures that transport organisations should take in order to prepare for a pandemic. Preparedness for future pandemics can be improved by clear operational guidanc e on the health and safety of key workers, transport workers and the travelling public, and the continued provision of key services during pandemic restrictions. • Part 3 describes key long -term planning measures that national, urban and rural transport a gencies can take to better plan and prepare for pandemics. It focuses on the integration and coordination of planning across the transport and health sectors and wider government. These long -term measures also align transport resilience to pandemics with global sustainable transport mobility goals . • Part 4 summarises the operational and long - term planning measures that governments and stakeholders in LICs can use to update transport and health policies for increased resilience to future pandemics. The Guid e can be used by LIC governments and development partners to help plan investments in sustainable transport networks that are resilient to pandemics and that provide mobility for all. 1. HOW PANDEMICS CREATE A TRANSPORT CRISIS COVID -19 and government measures to curb its transmission disrupted transport services around the world. Transport services underpin national economies, provide access to jobs, health, education and other services fundamental to social wellbeing, livelihoo d and development. Disruptions arose from the cancellation or suspension of public bus and rail transport , taxi services and logistics services. These reductions in service reduced mobility and caused delays in the movement of freight within countries and across borders. Bus com - panies, haulage companies and railways lost revenue, and budgets for maintaining road and rail infrastructure were reduced due to lower tax revenue or toll income s. Commerce and the economy declined, livelihoods were threatened, and forecasted mobility and long -term transport demand became uncertain. Thus, there is an urgent need for an integrated planning approach to make transport more resilient to future pandemics. 2 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide 1.1 How pandemics disrupt transport Public transport services reduced, transport workers and traveling public at risk Government efforts to stop the spread of COVID -19 included full or partial lockdowns that restricted people’s travel to work, schools, hospit als and shops. However, even under lockdown, certain key transport services are vital for the economy and society to function. Operators providing essential transport services, for instance, along toll roads, at bus and railway stations, and in long -distan ce transport rest areas must still work. However, t ransport workers because of their interaction with the public are at a high risk of exposure to COVID - 19 . Therefore, transport companies quickly adapted their services and implemented new public health measures. These measures included physical distancing and distribution of personal protective equipment (PPE) for workers and the trave lling public. In some cases, the wearing of face masks was mandatory . Body temperature testing devices for the det ection of fever were deployed at train and bus stations in many countries including China, Malaysia and Nepal. Despite these measures, many workers simply stayed at home, hindering transport’s role in the provision of essential services. Freight services s uspended or delayed Many national and city authorities placed restrictions on the movement of freight, only allowing essential goods such as food or medical supplies to be moved or restricting their movement to weekends. However, these restrictions on move ment of non -essential goods caused congestion in ports and warehouses in some countries including Malaysia and Nigeria , which delayed the movement of essential goods through the ports . These delays reportedly contributed to price rise s in some countries such as Nepal. Border crossing operations disrupted Many African and Asian countries closed their borders or restricted border opening times, whilst introducing mandatory COVID -19 testing of drivers and travellers. A limited availability of PPE at ports or borders, incidences of COVID -19 among border control agents, and staff absenteeism delayed the clearance of freight and passengers. These disruptions created traffic tailbacks of more than 20 km at some borders , doubling or even trebling border transit times. Experience from the HIV/AIDS epidemic and Ebola outbreaks showed infection rates to be higher around border crossings and identified long -distance transport as a vector that spreads viruses along strategic transport corridors. Transaid, a n international transport non - governmental organisation ( NGO ), reported that truck drivers in Africa were consequently facing public hostility at border and transit rest stop s. Toll road revenues take a hit Lockdowns and travel restrictions resulted in a dramatic fall in toll road revenues. In Mexico and Malaysia, revenues dropped by up to 40%. In India, Colombia and Argentina tolls were suspended on national highways for seve ral weeks , significantly reducing annual revenue. On road networks and on major bridges where “shadow pricing” is used , such as in UK, operators foresee substantially lower revenues due to reduced traffic flows. Toll road concessionaires in India called fo r an extension of concession periods. In other countries, toll road associations are calling for short -term financial support. Road fatalities decrease but not to same degree as traffic volume s Dramatic reductions in traffic volumes during COVID -19 restrictions led to lower road fatalities in many countries  . However, based on preliminary data in Europe, reductions in road fatalities were not in proportion to lower traffic volumes. This anomaly was due to increased traffic speeds resulting in higher -impact crashes and thus fatalities. In other countries, such as Chile, reports show that emergency services took longer to respond to road crashes because COVID -19 cases were given priority. Delays in treatin g road crash victims could increase the impact of injuries and lead to higher fatalities. Motorbike and bicycle taxis become less popular Motorbike and bicycle taxi operators also registered a reduction in passenger numbers and revenues as people avoided taxis due to perceived health risks. Other shared mobility services suffered during COVID -19 with the 3 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide suspension of many ride -share and bike -share services and cancellation of e -scooter rentals. Walking and cycling increase in popularity The walking and cycling components of active travel increased during the COVID -19 pandemic. Many cities in High -Income Countries (HICs) including Berlin, California, Barcelona, Paris, and London observed an increase in people walking or cycling to avoid t he perceived health risks of public transport. All these cities initiated or expanded pop -up infrastructure or pedestrian zones to set aside safe spaces for walking and cycling. Similar smaller -scale initiatives already operating in some African cities , including Addis Ababa and Kigali expanded during COVID -19. Asset maintenance brought forward National road and rail agencies in Chile and Mexico, taking advantage of lower traffic conditions, brought forward asset maintenance programmes that also formed part of a wider employment stimulus when other economic sectors were mothballed. Some cities including Lalitpur in Nepal and Kochi in India also implemented programmes for the maintenance of footpaths, or removal of obstacles from footpaths, to facilitate acti ve travel . 1.2 How transport disruptions impact the economy, commerce and livelihoods Transport disruptions had significant economic , commercial , and social impact s in many countries as set out below , and more so in LICs. Economic impact COVID -19 has disrupted all economies worldwide. Transport has been affected in a variety of ways , which has had a knock -on effect on econom ies . Transport services ha ve reduced almost everywhere . The resultant drop in business income s and delays in long -distance transport reduced commercial trade and exacerbate d economic issues in developing regions. Sub -Saharan Africa experienced its first recession in 25 years, exports dropped by 35% and foreign investment decreased between 5% and 15%. Ci ty administrations are under serious financial stress, with some African cities estimating revenue losses of 50 -70%. Latin America has seen a relatively smaller decline of approximately 7% in economic activity. Although a ll sectors of the economy experienc ed economic shocks , some have responded better than others. Labour -intensive sectors such as construction, textiles and retail have suffered most. Sectors that depend on e - commerce, including some retail services such as food and drink , have benefited most during lockdown and restrictions. All these sectors depend on transport to some extent, so any disruption of the availability and efficiency of transport services directly affect s the economy. LIC economies may be more vulnerable to pandemics due to limited Information Communications and Technology (ICT) infrastructure including e -commerce . Th is can mean less scope for home working, less opportunity for businesses to respond via e - commerce solutions , and less opp ortunity for workers to make a living without travel ling to work. In LICs, where personal car ownership is low, people rely heavily on public transport. Therefore, disruptions to public transport that limit people’s ability to travel to work has a significant impact on the economy and affects po orer economies disproportionately. Commercial impact The International Transport Forum (ITF) predicted in May 2020 that due to COVID -19 global freight transport volumes would fall by more than one third. The se falls included significant regional differences of up to 50% for ASEAN countries, Russia/Central Asia and India, 40% in Europe and the Americas, and between a half and a third in African countries. Con - sequently, many countries experienced signifi - cant reductions in customs revenues from this decline in trade. It has been estimated in South Africa that 50% of job s may be lost in the road freight industry because of COVID -19 , and the closure of freight businesses will have a long -term impact on freight capacity  . Many formal and informal public transport companies in Africa are experiencing serious financial stress, and many are on the verge of bankruptc y, according to the African Transport Policy Program (SSATP)  . Urban freight levels are generally forecast to reduce slightly , but inter -urban freight levels are projected to reduce more. Reductions in urban freight are low er due to the growth of on -line 4 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide shopping during lockdown resulting in more goods vehicles circulating , although overall urban traffic levels have reduced. Cross border freight traffic has reduced. Travel and tourism have suffered greatly due to bans on int ernational travel and people’s reluctance to visit other countries. Tourism is the third largest export sector of the global economy and relies heavily on all modes of transport. Losses from tourism revenue as a result of COVID -19 are estimated to be up to 2.8% of global GDP. Travel and tourism will take longer to rebound than most sectors. LICs that depend heavily on tourism and air transport, such as Madagascar and Kenya where tourism represents 16% and 9% of GDP respectively, will likely experience serio us impact and take longer to recover. Livelihoods under threat, gender and inclusion harder hit Reductions or suspensions of public transport services had a profound social impact, particularly on the poor who have fewer alternative means of access to jobs, health services or food supplies. Public transport fares in many cities increased as companies compensated for reduced ticket revenue and the extra costs of sanitary measures. Transport costs in LICs account for a high proportion of daily expenditure , so higher fares are an additional burden for low -income households. COVID -19 can have a disproportionate impact on women , b ecause women in LICs rely more on public transport than men and therefore face higher exposure to COVID -19. Women also are over -represented in customer service or cleaning roles in transport that are generally lower paid jobs, which means women often cannot pay the higher fares resulting from COVID -19 transport disruptions. Persons with disability are especially vulnerable dur ing pandemics. Physical distancing is particularly challenging on public transport , on which a high proportion of persons with disabilit y rely. In some LICs, there are limited disabled infrastructure and services, and often little or no information on how to access these services. Disruptions to transport have compounded the problems that persons with disability already face. 1.3 Long -term impacts on transport demand Pandemics may influence permanent changes in behaviour and transport demand in the long term. F ull and partial lockdowns reduced public and private transport usage fuelled by a perceived public health risk. COVID -19 has heightened the health risk of travelling on overcrowded buses, minibuses and trains , and this could lead to a behavioural shift in transport choices. Yet, vaccination campaigns that increase immunity and thus reduce perceived health risks could result in a recovery in public transport demand. Evidence from HICs emerging from COVID -19 lockdowns and from previous pandemics and recessions indicates that total transport demand may bounce back quickly. In most countries, total travel demand is anticipated to return to pre -COVID -19 levels within 6 – 12 months. However, evidence from LICs post -COVID -19 is yet to emerge. 1.4 An integrated planning approach for a transport pandemic plan A pandemic is different from a disaster. Most disasters that have major impacts on transport systems are caused by severe weather - typhoons or hurricanes - or geological events - earthquakes or volcanos. Th ese disasters cause physical damage to people and infrastructure in localised areas over a relatively short time, measured in days or weeks. Pandemics, however , are global public health emergencies that impact primarily on individual health and wellbeing, no infrastructural damage occurs. A pandemic can last many months and its impact varies during its lifetime. Therefore, transport organisations must prepare for different challenges that require short -term actions and long - term recovery strategies. Formul ating a transport pandemic plan creates ethical, logistical, and operational challenges that demands the involvement of a wide range of policy makers across the public and private sectors to develop an integrated planning approach . The World Health Organis ation (WHO) has historically prepared country and technical 5 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide guidance on pandemics. In 2005, for example , the WHO strongly urged every country to develop or update a national influenza preparedness plan  . It recognised the im portance of inter -sectoral planning among government departments including agriculture, transport, trade, labour, defence, education and the judiciary. It concluded that although it may not be feasible to halt the spread of a pandemic virus, it should be p ossible to minimise its consequences through advance preparation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) in United States in 2014 published guidance for public transportation planning and response to pandemics  . The TRB guid ance focused on small urban and rural transit agencies/ organisations and advocate d several important policy measures for publ ic health in transport. The WHO in 2020 established a COVID -19 publications hub  which includes country and technical guidance ranging from protection and support to health workers, assessment tools for medical laboratories, preparing countries for vaccines, stockpiling of personal protective equipment (PPE), triage and patient care, and com munications and public education. But it does not provide specific guidance for the transport sector. The HVT programme in 2020 published a Call for Collective Action for international transport stakeholders to respond to COVID -19 . It identified some of the efforts of multinational stakeholder organisations in their responses to COVID -19 as it affected their missions. Th ose organisations include the International Association of Public Transport (UITP)  ; the International Union of Railways (UIC)  ; the International Roads Federation (IRF)  ; and the World Road Association (PIARC)  . Initiatives such as the Transformative Urban Mobility Initiative (TUMI)  and Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All)  also publish findings and recommendations relating to COVID -19. The International Transport Forum (ITF) consolidates national government responses to COVID -19 for member countries  . The WHO reiterated the need for linkage between health and transport through their publication in 2020 on Supporting Healthy Urban Transport and Mobility in the Context o f COVID -19  . It emphasized the need for governments, public health authorities, transport providers and local communities to work together to ensure the health and safety of travellers and transport workers . It also noted that governments plan a key role in creating the policy frameworks for promoting safe active mobilit y, including through safe infrastructure for pedestrians and cyclists, reallocation of public space and enforcement of road safety measures. Therefore, t his Guide outlines an integrated planning approach for preparing a transport pandemic plan to maintain transport’s vital role in the economy and society during pandemics. 2. PLANNING GUIDANCE FOR TRANSPORT ORG ANISATIONS Part 2 of the Guide sets out operational measures that transport organisations should take to increase transport resilience to future pandemics. This guidance is for public and private road and rail transport managers, haulage companies, logistics companies, port and border post officials, transport infrastructure authorities and transport agencies at national and local government level. To help private and public sector managers implement these measures, the ministry of transport must lead, and work with other government departments to ensure that effective and efficient policy and regulatory frameworks are in place. The measures transport managers need to take are set out below. 2. 1 Planning for transport service managers Protect the health and safety of workers Protecting the health and safety of workers is the foundation of a pandemic transport plan. Taking steps to stem the transmission of coronavirus among workers will increase company confidence, will help to reduce absenteeism, and will enable reduced transp ort services to function. The measures can include: • Provide physical barriers between public - facing staff and public • Provide hand sanitisers and PPE 6 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide • Implement strict health checks and sanitisation procedures, including mandatory wearing of PPE • Provide training to recognise COVID -19 symptoms among staff and the travelling public, and how to isolate them • Implement new workforce rules such as fixing the maximum number of persons sharing company vehicles, allowing vulnerable staff (for example, thos e over age 60) to stay at home, and the staggering of working hours • Minimise travel to work by accommodating staff at work, for example, at construction sites, port and border posts • Minimise physical contact by communicating with staff via electronic means – intranet, email, SMS, screensavers, hotlines, phone, video, and noticeboards. Protect the health and safety of the public Public transport managers running bus companies and taxi firms, railway station managers, and transport agencies with public - facin g operations must stem the transmission of coronavirus among the travelling public. Mitigation measures will increase public confidence in travelling on public and private transport, will allow key workers to travel to work and will enable reduced transpor t services to function. The measures include: • Implement strict health checks including, for example, passenger temperature testing, if appropriate • Implement strict sanitisation procedures including regular sanitisation of vehicles and public areas • Provide hand sanitisers and PPE • Remove seating to ensure physical distancing between passengers on buses and trains. Develop contingency plans for absenteeism All organisations must develop contingency plans for absenteeism so that essential transport services run during pandemics. These plans should include measures to: • Develop staff inventory and identify backup personnel for key roles • Develop streamlined procedures where regular staffing levels are reduced • Devel op systems and procedures for remote handling of enquiries from the public and increase administrative staffing to handle increased enquiries . Provide public information about services Keeping the public informed of rapidly changing circumstances is paramount for the smooth running of essentials transport services during pandemics. Therefore, managers must: • Inform the public through internet, social media, print media, radio and TV about any changes to procedures and any operational restrictions to minimise travel time for work, shoppin g and other vital services. 2.2 The planning role of the ministry of transport The ministry of transport’s role is to create a national transport pandemic plan. The plan sets out the enabling policy framework and regulations to facilitate the operational planning measures for transport managers described in section 2.1. It must clearly assign the responsibilities and operational roles of all transport organisations and agencies. In updating the plan, the ministry should take account of the long -term measure s described in Part 3 of this Guide. The steps to create the transport pandemic plan are set out below. Lead and coordinate key government departments and NGOs • Work with key government departments to ensure that legal and policy frameworks of the transport plan are in place that allow transport managers to respond quickly and efficiently to pandemic disruptions. • Work with the national health department to establ ish clear lines of communication and responsibilities for implementing all public health measures on transport. These include physical distancing, information dissemination, procurement and distribution of PPE, testing, hazardous waste management, and trai ning. • Work with NGOs and use their disaster relief , logistics and public health expertise to reach 7 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide small rural communities affected by disrupted transport services. Designate transport workers as key workers • Work with transport managers and government depa rtments to establish key worker status for transport staff and operators to run essential transport services during a pandemic. Key workers may include bus drivers, train drivers, truck drivers, warehouse and logistics staff. Designate transport services as key services • Work with transport managers and government departments to establish key service status for essential transport services to operate during a pandemic. This may include services on specific bus, taxi, train or freight routes, with distributi on mechanisms for essential goods (food, medicines, fuel); service stations; vehicle repair shops; and active travel services. Provide transport services for key workers • Work with transport authorities, including city authorities, and transport managers t o provide transport services for key workers, for example, those working in health and agriculture, and in the emergency services. This may include free or subsidised services for designated key workers. Review customs and staffing arrangements at ports an d borders • Work with agencies to review and modify procedures at ports and border posts. Modified procedures could include fewer staff on duty at any one time while extending opening hours to facilitate physical distancing among officials , reducing customs inspections for certain key goods, and fast - tracking the movement of key personnel, for example, medical workers and truck drivers. Reschedule asset management programmes • Work with infrastructure agencies including road and rail agencies and urban authorities to bring forward asset maintenance or construction programmes that can be carried out safely within public health restric tions. Review and update regulations for vehicles and vehicle use • Review and enforce vehicle regulations on physical dista ncing, protection of drivers and staff, and the travelling public . • Temporarily suspend vehicle licensing or taxation requirements to allow transport services to continue function ing during a pandemic when licensing or taxation offices may be closed . This c an help when government staff are unable to travel to their offices or are unable to work from home . It also reduce s the potential interactions among people , thus reducing the risk of disease spread ing . • Review exclusion times for freight delivery within cities to enable smooth and efficient movement of essential goods . • Review speed awareness and enforcement during lockdown or travel restrictions. Evidence from UK shows that with lower traffic levels, more people exceed speed limits , so enhanced awa reness and enforcement will help to maintain road safety levels . Develop contingency plans for sourcing essential goods and services • Engage with key transport associations , including logistics companies , on specific measures to: o Identify resources critical to transport, such as fuel or spare parts, and consider increasing inventories and finding additional supplier sources o Set out critical supply chains across various transport modes - aviation, maritime, rail, and road o Identify availabili ty of drivers, trucks, vehicles, warehousing space, suppliers and producers, capturing market demand, inventories and producers through a networking approach  . Foster awareness training • Work with transport organisations to conduct, awareness training so all stakeholders are aware of their roles and responsibilities in a future pandemic. 8 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide 3. LONG -TERM PLANNING FOR PANDEMICS & SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT Part 3 of the Guide sets out planning measures to address long -term transport issues associated with pandemics. These are set in the context of the policy goals of the SuM4All Global Roadmap of Action towards Sustainable Mobility (GRA)  . The GRA policy goals are universal access, efficiency, safety and green mobility. The Guide, therefore, incudes planning measures associated with these goals for inclusion in transport pandemic plans that will make transport more resilient to pandemics and more sustaina ble. Therefore, Part 3 provides guidance for planning departments and transport agencies at national, city and local government levels. City authorities with sustainable urban mobility plans should be able to move quickly to design and implement urban tran sport pandemic plans. All agencies should use this long -term planning guidance to carry out research that determines resilient measures align ed to GRA goals to update transport pandemic plans and national and city - level sustainable transport plans. 3.1 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with universal access goals Universal access connects people in urban and rural communities to social and ec onomic opportunities. Embedding the principles of universal access in transport plans will increase resilience to pandemics . These m easures can include : • Restrict the movement of people and goods is a primary pandemic response. However, implementing this p olicy response must be seen as transparent, proportionate, relevant and mode -specific, and non -discriminatory. Any accompanying restrictions should minimise the continuity of economic activity. • Develop rationing and distribution systems for essential goods is necessary in pandemics , and these systems should be fair, equitable and non -discriminatory. • Provide support and relief measures to transport providers and operators during a pandemic – including through changes to road taxes, rail taxes, fuel taxes, lo ans, subsidies, toll road franchises. If such measures are applied, it is important that recipients are identified and supported equitably and consistently. • Provide support and relief measures that include basic social protection measures for transport workers , including those in the informal transport sector . • Consider government subsidies to support active travel and alternative transport modes, as part of a wider sustainable transport strategy. For example, drones are COVID -19 financial support to the transport sector COVID -19 restrictions stifle commercial activities, reduce business revenues, and threaten jobs in all transport companies. And, the longer the pandemic lasts the greater the risk of bankruptcy. Therefore, many governments have provided financial support to compani es and furloughed employees to allow transport companies to operate basic services. This means transport companies remain viable and the sector retains transport service capacity, post - pandemic. The Asian Development Bank set up a policy measures database listing measures that member countries have taken in response to COVID -19  . These include short -term and long -term lending, equity support, income support, budget reallocation and other economic measures. Support for these measures is a mix of national and international finance. The World Bank provided emergency funding to support essential public transport operators in LICs  . The African Development Bank provides a COVID -19 Response Facility to assist regional member countries in fighting the pandemic  . In Africa, Ivory Coast provided financial compensation to bus operators. Ghana facilitated l ocal transport associations in Kumasi City to access national stimulus packages. Senegal allocated part of its national COVID -19 fund to support public transport operators with assistance from the European Investment Bank. 9 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide used to deliver medical supplies to remote rural areas in Rwanda and Malawi. In Ethiopia, a multidisciplinary COVID -19 Emergency Response team explored e - payments to reduce physical contact and promote and expand cycling. • Consider subsidies for certain groups, such as key health workers or persons with disability, through waiving of or reducing public transport fares. • Develop inclusion policies and programmes for vulnerable public transport users. Per- sons with disability , for example, can be disadvantaged because of the absence of personal help and perceived lack of information. • Establish specific training programmes for transport workers covering guidance on health, safety and security. Such training programmes should include workers in the informal transport sector. • Develop emotional support programmes for transport workers . Transport workers are especially vulnerable due to their contacts with the pu blic. 3.2 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with efficiency goals Efficiency is the optimisation of the predict - ability, reliability and cost -effectiveness of mobility. Many measures to increas e transport resilience to pandemics are similar to the GRA recommendations to improve efficiency. These measures can include : • Strengthen coordination between governments and officials at the local level on measures to allow borders to remain open for trade while instituting effective measures to contain the spread of pandemics. These measures cover streamlining systems, practices and procedures at ports and bor ders by expediting the movement, release, and clearance of goods, including goods in transit . Examples of good practice include the TIR (Convention on International Transport of Goods) or similar systems present in many trade and transport regional agreeme nts, such as the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the Northern Corridor Transit and Transport Agreement in East Africa. Fast and efficient movement of essential goods and services can be key during pandemics and is an important component of efficiency  . • Implement e -procurement systems to keep parts of the economy moving during a pandemic. For government procurement these systems avoid bidders travelling to submit physical bids, allow officials to evaluate b ids and award contracts remotely, thus keeping the economy moving by procuring infrastructure and services. E - procurements also help key staff in government agencies to better adhere to physical distancing and contribute to improving efficiency in governm ent procurement. • Implement e-payment systems including on - line bookings or payments to eliminate cash payments that reduce the risk of exposure to contagion. An alternative for some companies would be fixed fares to reduce cash handling. Both measures cont ribute to improving efficiency in public transport systems. • Introduce information systems using digital technology such as variable messaging signs to inform road users of specific pandemic mitigation measures , or to provide secondary me ssaging to raise awareness on related issues such as speed limits. • Develop metrics to measure resilience across the transport sector with a focus on efficiency . Metrics or indicators could include, f or example, sales of e -bikes or scooters, revenue from e -mobility se rvices , or use of contactless paymen ts on public transport . These indicators would monitor the change in transport usage and demonstrate how transport services are changing . 3.3 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with safety goals Safety, in the GRA, covers fatalities, injuries and crashes and this Guide extends safety to include public health as part of long -term planning for sustainable transport. M easures that identify and mitigate risks to public health during pandemics, and contribute to wide r safety goals , can include : 10 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide • Reform the contractual arrangements between public transport authorities and companies to establish codes of conduct to protect the health and welfare of the travelling public and transport workers. • Update health and safety st andards for vehicles , such as the installation of air filters on public transport, and the installation of visors and screens to protect drivers . • Consider governments loans and grants to transport companies to retrofit vehicles with improved health and saf ety measures such as visors, screens, air filters, CCTV or other equipment for protection against, or to monitor the impact of, a pandemic in terms of the number of people using public transport and how closely they adhere to regulations . This information can be used to adjust and improve the regulations or guidance to focus loans and grants on the most effective measures. • Update safety standards for infrastructure. This can include so-called pop -up infrastructure such as bicycle lanes, pedestrian zones, and signage on public footpaths. • Identify critical safety systems assets that need to be kept operational for purposes of pandemic resilience. For example, signalling systems on rail ways where failure would dramatically reduce operational capacity. Keeping critical assets operational may necessitate increasing spare parts inventories and identification of key operational personnel. • Implement systems for monitoring physical distancing in transport hubs and on public transport, for example, CCTV installations. Such tools will help the transport manager or facility manager to monitor implementation of physical distancing measures and assist public health officials in advising on addition al measures. Such technology would also help to create safe environments for women and vulnerable people. 3.4 How improving resilience to pandemics aligns with green mobility goals Green mobility minimises the environmental footprint of mobility - GHG emis sions, noise and air pollution. Measures to increase resilience to pandemics also contribute to wider green mobility by taking the following measures : • Construct assets to support active travel. Bicycle lanes, pedestrian zones and e -bike infrastructure that have been part of the response to pandemics, and all contribute to green mobility. • Reapportion road space to cycling and pedestrians on urban streets to provide safe space for recreational and utilitarian travel during pandemics. This improves public heal th, supports transit, and reduces GHG emissions and hence contributes to green mobility. 3.5 How improving universal access can contribute to resilience to pandemics Measures that have long been considered to improve universal access could also contribute to increased transport resilience to pandemics. COVID -19 offers renewed impetus in the following areas : • Urban planning: Adopt integrated land use planning to support transit -oriented development, promote mixed land use and compact city planning that limits urban sprawl, and integrate road and rail network development in urban planning. Putting people and services closer together will reduce travel and improve access to vital services during a pandemic. • Rural planning: Gear all future rural roads planning and development to improving connectivity to local markets, trading centres, schools, and health facilities. Increased connectivity, the development of logistics infrastructure (collection points, sorting, grading, and storage/cold storage) will also reduce post -harvest losses and compensate for reduced transport services during a pandemic. • Implement multi -modal network planning: In addition to being key to universal access , multi -modal planning allows other transport modes to carry traffic from modes impaired by a pandemic and move people and goods where they need to go . 11 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide 4. INTEGRATING OPERATIONAL AND LONG -TERM MEASURES FOR PANDEMIC RESILIENT TRANSPORT Part 4 of the Guide brings together, in three tables, the measures to make transport more resilient to pandemics. Table 1 provides a check list of operational planning measures, Table 2 provides a check list of long -term planning measures, and Table 3 provid es a checklist of long -term planning measures to support universal access in pandemics. Tables 2 and 3 apply the GRA policy goals to align resilience to pandemics with sustainable transport mobility goals. The first column in each table lists measures to improve resilience to pandemics. Subsequent columns show the different types of agency in the transport sector. The organisation with primary responsibility to develop and implement the measures is indicated by a full circle ( ●). A hollow circle ( ○) indicates the organisation with secondary responsibility or that provides a supporting role . The measures and responsibilities are advisory and should be reviewed and adapted to individual country needs/situations as part of its pandemic planning for the transport sector. Table 1: Operational planning measures Operational planning measures in response to pandemics Health Agencies Transport Ministries City Transport Authorities Infrastructure Agencies Public Transport Operators Freight Operators Warehousing and Logistics Toll Road Operators Border Crossing Agencies Other transport service providers (e.g. bus / train station / rest area operators) Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agencies All transport organisations Protect health and safety of workers ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Protect health and safety of the public ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Develop contingency plans for absenteeism ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Provide public information about services ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● National Transport Ministry Develop ment of transport plan for pandemics ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Lead and c oordinate key government departments and NGOs ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Designate transport workers as key workers ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Designat e transport services as key services ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Provi de transport services for key workers ○ ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Review customs and staffing arrangements at ports and borders ● ○ Reschedule asset management programmes ● ● ● ● Review and update regulations for vehicles and vehicle use ● ○ Develop contingency plans for sourcing essential goods & services ● ○ ○ ○ Foster awareness training ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 12 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide Table 2: Long -term planning measures linked to GRA goals Long -term measures to improve resilience to pandemics Health Agencies Transport Ministries City Transport Authorities Infrastructure Agencies Public Transport Operators Freight Operators Warehousing and Logistics Toll Road Operators Border Crossing Agencies Other transport service providers (e.g. bus / train station / rest area operators) Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agencies Universal Access Develop policies to restrict the movement of people and goods ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Develop rationing and distribution mechanisms for essential goods ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ Consider government subsidies, grants and loans to transport providers and operators ● ● ○ ○ ○ Set up basic social protection measures for transport workers ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Consider government subsidies, grants and loans to support active travel and alternative transport modes ● ● Consider subsidies for groups such as key health workers or persons with disability ● ● ● Develop inclusion policies and programmes ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Establish training programmes for transport workers covering health, safety and security ○ ● ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Develop emotional support programmes for transport workers ○ ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Efficiency Strengthen and adapt border crossing procedures ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Implement e -procurement systems ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Implement e -payment systems ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Implement information systems for public messaging ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Develop metrics for resilience ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Safety Reform codes of conduct for transport operators ● ● ● Set up health and safety standards for vehicles ● Consider loans or grants to transport companies to retrofit vehicles to improve health and safety ● ○ ○ Update safety standards for infrastructure ● ● ● Implement systems to monitor physical distancing ● ● ● Green Mobility Construct assets to support active travel ● ● ● ○ ○ Reapportion road space to cycling and pedestrians ● ● ● ○ ○ 13 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide Table 3: Long -term planning measures specific to universal access Long -term measures to improve resilience to pandemics Health Agencies Transport Ministries City Transport Authorities Infrastructure Agencies Public Transport Operators Freight Operators Warehousing and Logistics Toll Road Operators Border Crossing Agencies Other transport service providers (e.g. bus / train station / rest area operators) Driver and Vehicle Li censing Agencies Universal Access Urban Planning ● ● ● ● ● ● Rural Planning ● ● ● ● ● ● Integrated multi -modal transport planning ● ● ● ● ● ● 14 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide APPENDIX 1: RESOURCES The following are key resources that have been referred to from this Guide which give key operational and long -term measures for consid eration in future transport plan s for pandemics.  European Transport Safety Council, “The Impa ct of COVID -19 Lockdowns on Road Deaths in April 2020,” 2020.  PIARC COVID -19 Response Team, “COVID -19: Initial Impacts and Responses to the Pandemic from Road Transport Agencies,” 2020.  SSATP, “Urban Mobility and COVID -19 in Africa,” 2020.  World Health Organisation, “Global Influenza Preparedness Plan,” Department of Communicable Disease, Switzerland, 2005.  Transportation Research Board, “A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response,” 2014.  World Health Organisation, “Country & Technical Guidance - Coronavirus disease (COVID -19),” [Online]. Available: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel -coronavirus - 2019/technical -guidance. [Accessed November 2020].  High Volume Transport, “Call for Collective Action for International Transport Stakeholders to respond to the COVID -19 Pandemic,” 2020.  International Association of Public Transport, “Public Transport and COVID -19,” [Online]. Available: https://www.uitp.org/projects/public -transport -and -covid -19/. [Accessed March 2021].  International Union of Railways, “Coronivirus: UIC Works on Providing its Members and Partners with Concrete Measures,” [Online]. Available: https://uic.org/covid - 19 /?recherche=COVID. [Accessed March 2021].  International Roads Federation, “COVID -19: Update from IRF Global,” [Online]. Available: https://www.irf.global/covid -19 -update -from -irf-global/. [Accessed March 2021].  World Road Association, “COVID -19 - PIARC's Response,” [Online]. Available: https://www.piarc.org/en/News -Agenda -PIARC/Coronavirus -PIARC -and -Covid -19. [Accessed March 2021].  Transformative Urban Mobility Initiative (TUMI), “Instruments to combat COVID -19 in transport,” [Online]. Available: https://www.transformative -mobility.org/corona. [Accessed March 2021].  Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All), “SuM4All Members in action against COVID -19,” [Online]. Available: https://www.sum4all.org/publications/sum4all -membe rs-respond -action - against -covid -19 -i-informing -public. [Accessed March 2021]. 15 Making Transport in Low -Income Countries Resilient to Pandemics: A Planning Guide  International Transport Forum, “Transport and COVID -19: Information Links,” [Online]. Available: https://www.itf -oecd.org/covid -19/links. [Accessed March 2021].  Wor ld Health Organisation, “Supporting healthy urban transport and mobility in the context of COVID -19,” Geneva, 2020.  The Chartered Institue of Logistics and Transport, “Coronavirus Resource Database,” [Online]. Available: https://ciltuk.org.uk/covidr esponse. [Accessed November 2020].  Sustainable Mobility For All, “Global Roadmap of Action Toward Sustainable Mobility,” World Bank, 2019.  European Commission, “Guidelines for border management measures to protect health and ensure the availa bility of goods and essential services,” European Commission, Brussels, 2020.  Asian Development Bank, “COVID -19 Policy Measures,” [Online]. Available: https://covid19policy.adb.org/policy -measures. [Accessed March 2021].  World Bank, “Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility,” 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/pandemics/brief/fact -sheet -pandemic -emergency - financing -facility. [Accessed January 2021].  African Development Bank Group, “African Development Ba nk Group unveils $10 billion Response Facility to curb COVID -19,” [Online]. Available: https://www.afdb.org/en/news - keywords/covid -19 -response -facility -crf. [Accessed March 2021]. TRL Ltd Crowthorne House, Nine Mile Ride, Crowthorne, Wokingham RG40 3GA Tel: 01344 773 131 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: trl.co.uk