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Liberalisation of Urban Public Transport Services: What are the implications? Indian Journal of Transport Management Vol. 20 No. 2 February 1996

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C TRANSPORT RESEARCH LABORATORY TITLE by Liberalisation of urban public transport services: What are the implications? D A C Maunder and T C Mbara Overseas Centre Transport Research Laboratory Crowthorne Berkshire United Kingdom .1: MAUNDER, D A C and T C MBARA (1996). Liberalisation of urban public transport, services: What are the implications? Indian Journal of Transport Management, Vol. 20, No.2, February 1996. PA 3108196 INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT 1 ABSTRACT Ownership. regulation and control of the stage bus industry contirutes to be an intenslvelyj debated topic in both tlhe developed and developing worlds. Propontents of private: sector ownership and liberalisat Ion argue that such conditions generate. an efficient and effec-tive mnarket orientated s tage'buts service. Oppon-enit.spr~omote variouislevels of reguilation. conitrol anidgov~ernmienit involvement including ownership, because of marke~t [imperfections, a loss inl social welfare anid a belief that liberalisation leads to a wvastefult use of scarce resources with consequential environmental disbenefits. Whilst it is impossible to be definitive on the subject fromn either standpoint, newv case study material frequently highlights the effects (both positive and niegative) of governmlent or private ownership., regulation anid liberalisation on the performance of stage bus services in the developing world. This article initially describes some international experiences where levels of liberalisation heave occurred. in respect Qf urban public transport siqster-ns. it. then describes the inlitial research fidnsby (lhe Traunsport Research Laboratory anid tlie Univer-sitiy of Ziinbalbwc followinq the Covernmnent of Ziinbabue's liberalisation of tlie urban public transport sector iin 1993. INTRODUCTION The. role of govcrnrnent In the stage bus ])ublic translport. sector continues to be a source of contention and debate In both the developed and developing worlds especially in respect of ownersh~ip )an-d regulation. The debate about ownership and control has been a source of contention In the developing world (Whilte 1981. Walters 1979. Transurb Consult-Inrets, 1991). For a considerajble time international aid agencies such as the World Bank have encouraged and supported the provision of urban stage bus,- services by lprIvate operators within a less regulated environment (World Bank 1986). *Dr. Maundicir is fromi Transport Rescarch Laboratory, U.K. and Mr. Mbara is wvith University of Zimbabilwe.. Despite this there are public transport. operations In the developing world which continue to be in public ownership and regulation is extensive (Transurb Consult - ,inrets 1991). Increasingly, ]however, the trend both for public transport, services as wvell as other economic sectors has been marked by a gradual mnove from state control to privatisation. 'Recently the trend has been accelerated throughout the African sub-continent under various Economic Structural Adj ustment Programmes that gover-rments are implementing with assistance from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Thus a wvide spectrum of ownership exists in the urban lptblic transport sector varying from completely naxt oritaxlised public sector companies (parastatals) to the private sector wvith various permui-ta~tions in betwveen. This is - - ----. '- . a 1 6 1 7 also the case In terms of regulation and control of the industry ranging from rigid enforcement to a taissez~faire market orientated appr-oach. LIBERALISATION LUberalisation Is a process of Introducing competition into a previously protected sector of the cconomy so as to reduce constraints for potcntial entrants into the sector and make the sector 'tmore responsive'. Liberalisation should not, however, entail the1 total abolition. of regulations and controls :but should enable the harnessing ofecompetitive. forces. toporo'vide effectivc, and. extenysive ma,~rket. orientated evces w ithina nieaisurc of.'quan tity' ,and 'quaility' cotitrols 11However, in a number of cities In the developing world such controls are either lacking or are not enforced so that chaos has ensued. 'Quantity controls' which entail limiting thie numnber of vehicles and operators allowed to oiperate on routes and throughout the netwvork is ncccssary to avoid excess passenger capacity andc to ensure that vehicles only operate on pernittled routes. Without such con-straints, operators tend to compete only in the most lucrative and heavily passenger trafficked routes leading to the wvasteful duplication of services on such routes, congestion and excessive fuel consumption to the detriment, of the national economly. 'Quality licensing' Is also required even In a liberalised environment so Ihlat passengers arc afforded the highest. level of safety protection. Othierwvise vehicles, many of which are tinrioadwvorthy and in a poor miechanical state for carrying passengers, are utilised and all too frequently overloaded. In addition. wvithout such licensing, operators frequently operate with inadequate or without insurance protection. In a highly competitive sector with drivers competing ag.grecssively for passengers. accidents frequently occur due to consi lerable driver behaviour. Violence and gangsterism, are also frequent occurrences ait major termninals where operators are not. adequately regul]ated or controlled. EXAMPLES OF LIBERALISED SYSTEMS Experience from both the developed and developing world wvhere liberalised competitive systems operate leads to diverse vicwpoinis. A number of examples are discussed. United Kingdom The Transport Act of 1980 clfeed ively remnoved most price controls in B~ritain (oustsde London) and made It easier to introduce new competitive services. Following the enactment of the Transport Act of 1985 which becamne effective In October 1986. quality controls outside. London were. abolished except .for the rneed- to egister a 'ote, and tfdi l wi hi specified, timec period. The Act also only: allowed subsidies to bed paid after a competitive tendering process had'becn undertaken. During the ensuing period, vehicle kflornetrage Increased by at least 20% (due to the operation of higher frequency services) and "1patronage declined by between 33% in metropolitan areas and 20% In other deregulated areas .(White 1985). The level of subsidy su pport fell by 50%X in real termis yet White suggests iliat. "1profitability as a percentage of turnover iose fromn 4 to 8 percent'. Despite the hlope that fares. would be reduced due to competition In a liberalised environment this has not occurred and real revenue per passenger has Increased at a faster rate than the decline in patronage. Mackic et al (1995) concurs suggesting "real fares have increased following deregulation. The reductions In operating costs have been wholly swvallowed up by subsidy cuts and, mileage Increases with nothing left over for reductions In fares. The pattern of fare Increases has broadly reflected the pattern of subsidy withdrawal". Mackle et al continue "Falls in real operating costs and removal of non- comnmercial cross-subsidy hcave not led to falls in real fares on commercial routes. Nor has the market been characterised by differential fares .according to the nmarket characteristics of' particular routes. Competition hlas iaken lplace on service not on price'. .~-,' " ---- INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT 1 Another aspect has been the growth of uirban inimbus services which have generally flourished In the deregulated cnvironrnent (Watts et al (1990). Whilte et al (1992)). Mackie et al (1995) argue "there is, no doubt that across the smiall and medium sized (owns, especially in central and southern En~lgla~nd. replacement of less frequent big buses by more frequent minibuses has been a significant benefit to users'. An additional aspect not predicted or cxpected at the start of the deregulation process has been the reformation, of six big bus opraInggrbous, which hiave mre olwn .the initial breakup. of the NationaflBus Company Local arnid non local Mergers have occurred as wvell as predatory acqulsations such that now the sector Is dominated by: - Stage coach - Badgerline - Go Ahead - British Bus - WMIT - GR.T Bus Surprisingly, the bus sector lin the UK appears to be highly concentrated and not very contestable. Santiago, Chile The government of Chile began liberalising local bus services during the early 1980s which culminated In the total deregulation of services in Santiago, the capital. The number of buses, operators and bus kilometres increased rapidly though the parastatal bus company soon went into liquidation. Operators tended to provide services on major corridors which led to environmental problems such as Intense congestion and po llution In the city central area. As a consequer .ce, patronage per vehicle kilometre operatel fell significantly. Darbera (1993) noted that. ten ycal-s after deregulation `the impact has been exactly the opp)1osite of what wvas expected: fares heave risen and service diversity reduced-. Thlat `the process led to an unstable market with overcapacity, a tripling or fares and a decline in passengers` Fernando and de Cea however note `a wider range of services, increased participation of small vehicles but that operational costs increased by 20 percent and road congestion had increased due to the bus fleet expansion". In a reversal of the earlier policy the government has now introduced a policy of franchised routes where operators bid for a route on the basis of vehicle age and capacity. service frequency and fare to bie charged. (New, lrevehicles are nenouirage~d, to reduce conlgestion anid pollution)., T hus, quant'ity' and qualit~y. controls are gradually being implemented though during the off-peak period there Is considerable over capacity on routes which needs to be curtailed. Similarly. as most operators own less than five buses, the administrative process in initiating the franchise approach has been considerable, but operators appear to prefer the present controlled measures rather thani the previous laissez faire approach. Delhi, India in Delhi, the Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) to increase bus cap~acity In the capital initially sub-contracted private olperators on a kilometrage basis, iLe. the private operator wvas guaranteed an amount per kilometre operated by the parastatal but the latter provided a ticket agent and retained all revenues itself. Hence a certain number of privately owned buses wvcre allowed to operate on each route, the number being regulated by the parastatal. Following the liberalisatilon of permnits by the Indian Government in 1988, private operaldors were allowed to compete openly with the DTC. Howvever, the Introduction of privately owned buses In Delhi. It Is alleged, led to "a (leterloratlon In driver behlaviour with drivers slpeeding to outrace othier drivers, overloading of buses and jumnping of red lights to make as man-xiy trip~sas l)ossible c(1 Icraild 1993). Service frequency improved however, anrd passenger waiting timies declined. ' -''- ~-----. ,- - . . .. ~ ...'-- 1. -- --- _ '~>! .-.-,. .- " , " 18 19 Nairobi, Kenya In Nairobi. public transport serviecs are presently provided by: - Kenya Bus Services (IKBS) - Nyayo Bus Services (NBS)- - Matutus K.BS, used to operate under a franchise system and was the sole supplier of public transpor srvices. until matutus were legalised and* noxy ey face compeiton from NSas welL: .'KS s75_percenit wndby aUK cmpany and 25 p'ercent by .th~e, NairobiCity. Council. N Sisa GoveCr n ofKna run: parastatal comipany and matutus "are privately owned smiall scale transporters of commuters, they 'represent an intermediate form of public transport service between the convcntional bus and taxi" (Obudho and Aduno, 1992). Matutus wvere legalised as a form of public transport by Presidential decree in 1973, having formerly operated as 'pirate taxis'. In 1973 they carried 16%/ of passengers travelling in Nairobi comipared with 84% by 1(13 but by 1995 -the nmatatu market share has risen to 55%1/. Mcanvhile. KI3S has declined to 42% and. NB3S carriesjuist 3% as they operate a small fleet and mnainly during peak hours only. Since. their legalisation. matutus have been an object of. persistent public criticism and are viewed as "unruly, hazardous and an uneconomical means of travel" and they have been accused of "being the cause of most dreadrul -accidents and pcrforming the most. chiaotic operations" (Obudhio and Adtiwo, 1992). They hlave'been Identified with over-speeding, overloading, continuous hooting and touting for passengers, chaotic parking, harassment and abuse of passengers and general disregard for nonnal traffic rules. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania In Dar es Salaam public transport seivices are presently provided by a parastatal, Shirika La Usafiri Dar es Sala-an Ltd. (UDA). and privately owned and operated buses known locally as Dala Dala's. The parastatal bus company. UDA, unable to cope with passenger demand In the 1980's, contracted out routes (in conjunction with the Ministry of Communications and Works) to Dala Dala operators who paid the parastat-al -a permit. fee each month to operate a route. UDA initially managed the system and agreed the number of Dala Dala s allowed to operate so that an adequate service was provided to a scheduled time-table. UDA continued to operate at least one bus on each route in the network to ens ure .a basic level of service ~was provi dede especially *during e~arly morninrg or late at ngt wen Da], Dal-as wiere-less. eviden-t.. In time, however, UDA 'lost' the management control and Dala Dala operators were licensed wvlthout any regulation or control over'the numbers licensed to operate. or on which routes. Gradually. Dala Dalas provided the majority of services and at the present time it is estimated that there are 3500 licensed to operate compai-ed to a fleet of only 70 UDA buses. -As a consCqluece.C thie parastatal now serves less than 10% of the public transport market share in Dar es Salaamn and operates very few rouites. Passengers are provided with a high frequency service during the peak travel period but less so during off-peak periods. On mtost routes, modal choice is restricted to Dala Dalas only. as the parastatal's fleet has aged and dimninishied and It has curtailed its ser-vice network. With losses being incurred by UJDA financial support will be required in the short term If It Is niot to collapse and thiereby leave thie public transport market totally in the hands of Dala Dala operators. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea Before the early 1980's, public transport services were, provided in Port Moresby by minibus operators and t 'le Moresby Bus Company (owned by Government and private individuals). However, during 1981/82 the bus comlpany went into liqutida,,tioni and presently 20 INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT only minibuses are operated by individual owners. Prior to 1987, mninibu-s operators could operate anywhere without restriction In the capital: they therefore operated in a demand resl)onsive manner diverting from route to rou te at the wvhim of the operator. In 1987 greater control was exercised by [iec government's National Land Transport Board (NLTB) by the establishment of a network and vehicles licensed to operate on set routes only. Thc NLTB decides. how many buses are needed to provide a "proper service to the public" and so a maximum number of pernits are granted annul~ally on a. rou te basis -to provide such a scnrice.'* Thus despite the system .being totally provided by# the private sector, control is maintained by government in terms of the number of vehicles permitted to operate and tlie [ares charged. Regulations are strictly ce forced. Harare, Zimbabwe Historically. the provision of conventional stage bus services in Harare can be, divided into four distinct p~hases: (a) pre-1980; (b) 1980 to nmid-1988: (c) mid-1988 to mild-1993: (d) post nulcl- 1993. Prior to 1980. services were provided under a Franchise agreement by a subsidiary of the UK, United Transport Overseas Services Company. After independence In 1980, the Government of Zimbabwe regarded urban public transport services as a key sector of the economy. and acquired a 51 percent sliareholding in the Zimbabwe United Passenger Co. (7iUPCO) during 1988. Following government participation, operational performance and service lcvels improved (Maunder and Mbare, 1993). However, tlie financial viability of ZU[PC0's liarare Division dIeterioratecd, constraining its ability to renew or expand its fleet during 1992/93 to keep abreast of demand. Finally, in August 1993, the government liiberalised the sector by allowing p~rivratIely- operated com-muter omnibuses to compete with ZUPCO. Despite liberalising the sector, quality controls continue to be enacted by the government to ensure vehicles are road-worthy and passengers are insured when travelling. Operators are at present granted the routes they wish to operate by the Controller of Ro-ad Motor Transport, and no quantity restrictions on the number of vehicles per route are en-acted. Most routes operated are. to. or from, high population density areas which has meant that the small capacity emnergency taxis (operating as shared taxis) have been displaced and the latter now operate mainly on! short routes or intra-suburban. routes., Fares for commuter. omnibuses 'are set (axm )bygovernrient. Following the liberalisation process, there has been a rapid growvth in the commuter omnibus fleet as illustrated by Figure 1. The fleet grew by 118 percent between January- September 1994. and by September commuter omnibuses represented 30 percent. of the pubillic transport fleet operating in H-arare. (Maunder and Mbara 1995). Passenger can.riring capacity varies greatly (see Figure 2) with the smallest vehicles having a seating capacity of eight lpassengers and the largest 88 but, the alater are capable of transporting 1 18 passengers. Limited household surveys showv that 16 percent of all trips made by household members are nowv undertaken by commuter omnibuses. As a consequence, trips by emergency (shared) taxi have halved to nine percent and by ZUPCO have declined to 20 percent. Trips on foot at 34 percent are still the dominant mode In Harare. Despite the considerable demand for commuter omnibus services, the- substantial increase in fleet and passenger carrying capacity has led to a situation wvhere the total public transport passenger eap~acity has increased faster than the total demand. In addition, in many corridors, ZUPCO appears to have reduced Its passenger carrying capai)~city, which if continued may lead to a lack of modal choice in the long term for passengers. WValting times (see Figure 3) hrave been reduced by 33 percent from an average 18 to 12 1 ' -1- --- --- -.---- -- 1 .--------- -- ----- 1 1 --- -- 1 .1  1-1   -w 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~2 m11inuLtes and passengers highlight improvements in service quality as a result of the introduction *of commuter omnibuses. The tnt roduction of commuter omnibuses Iii H-arare wvas undertaken to liberalise the scctor rather than to totally deregulate the market. Operators cannot legally compete on fares as tliese are officially determ-ined and controlled by government. However. at the moment, the system- Is flexible and due to a lack of eiiiorccment. commuter omnibus fares have tendeld to rise at certain times of the day when demiand Is high. Thus, Increased competition lias not le d to a reduic'tion in fares as many *proponents of. liberahtisatioh ~ha've. suggested. * Secondly. ~althoug o 0pe'rat.ors have generally been granite'd routes of t heir 'choice, thie present regulations stipulate that these should be designated by the Minister of Local Government. Plans are already underway. howvever, for local authorities to undertake the responsibility to determine the absolute number of comimuter omnibuses as well as the routes to bc operated. Notwithstanding the point that the market ha~s not been comipletely deregulated, but ilberalised, it is evident from the study that the Introduction of comimuter omnibuses has substantially improved- the level of service in Hlarar-e. The fleet expansion and Increase in p~assenger carrying capacity has ensured that passenger waiting times have decreased, and thie expansion of routes, has benefited passengers wvho previously were not provided with a service. The redeployment of emergency taxis on shorter routes ais well as on Intra-suburban routes has mecant that these services now penetrate -areas which previously were not supplied with a good quality service. At lpresent, It is difficult to determine the Ilikely long term effects that commuter oiniiwibuses wvill have on the conventional bus services provided by ZUPCO. However, taking the scenario of a continued growth In the conimutecr omnibus fleet, It Is likely that. the tuturc expansion of the ZUJPCO conventional bus fleet and services will be curtailed. This has happened in other cities Such as Nairobi where the unprecedented growth In the MatatU fleet has calptured at least 50 percent of the urban stage bus market -and so constrained the growth and level of service provided by the conventional KBS bus fleet. At present ZUPCO has totally w.ithdrawvn services from one route citing Increased competition. Such a situation Is likely to Increase and lead to a smaller urban netwvork being operated. A larger segment of thec fleet. is likely to operate contract hires: anrd ruralI services, thus limliting paRssenger choice -In Hlarare., Despite an improvemientin. the level of ~ervce atriuted to commute r omnibuses, it can also be argued that the mushrooming of smaller vehicles results in an overall inefficient use of resources, smaller vehicles being less efficient in terms of cost per passenger carrying capacity than conventional buses. As the city of Harare continues to expand, the future public transport system. cannot be su~st~ained by smiall capa,,city vehlicles alone. Convlentionail buses ais olperated by ZUPCO wvill need to continue to play a significant role. Environmental issues are. a subject. of worldwide concern. The growth of c onmuter omnibuses in Harare has contributed to the growth In congestion wvithin the city centre. As (here are no official areas for the vehicles to take passengers on board, certain roads are frequently blocked (see Plate 1) with commuter omnibuses waiting to load with passengers. Clearly off-street parking sites need to be provided by the local authority at key locations withlin the city centre for the loading and unloading of commuter ominibus passengers. The attractiveness of somec parts of thle city -and general aesthetic appeal have been adversely affected. Current evidence also shows that commuter omnibuses are more prone to ,accidents than emergency taxis. In short, the growth of comm-uter omnibuses may have already had negative Impacts on the environment. which is likely to deide,'ttot ate still1 f-urther, as the number ofconinitiiter omnibuses continue to Increase. INDIAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT 2 CONCLUSIONS Meeting, July 1985. Vol P266. 13-25. Internationally. the effects of liberalising urban public transport services Is varied. Proponents both for and against liberalisation canl find solace from the various examples cited in this article. Harare Is no exception as In the short ternm following liberalisation a higher service frequency, reduced passenger waiting timies, Increased capacity and choice have followed. However, the signs are already observable of fares being Increased at certain thime periods; of ZUPCO reducing Its services and hence reducing passenger modal choice; of increased congestion, pllution and adcident * l~elsandfewpassengers prvhcebeing transported during ofr-peak petods'. As cited by most of the case examples, liberalisation of the sector cannot, and should not, be seen as the total abolition of all forms of regulation and control. Continued use of quantity anid quality control measures are essential to ensure vehicle and passenger safety, olperator viability and the. avoidance of wasteful service duplication. Khezwvana and Mauinder (1993) called for such controls when liberalisatlon was being considered by governments and recently the World Bank (1 994) suaggested the need 'for public scrutiny and regulation on passenger safety, service ob~liga-tions anid pollution follow'ing difficulties with route coordination, excessive congestion and unsafe driving practices In somec instances". It is hoped that such calls will be heeded inl future If and when Governments initiate liberalisation policies for the urban transport sector. REFERENCES 1 Darbera, R. (1993) 'Deregulation of urban transport In Chile: "Whiat have we learned in the decade 1979/89?" Transport Reviews Vol 13 No 1 45-59. 2 Fernandez, J.E., J de Cea (1985) "An evaluation of the effects of deregulation l)olicies on the Santiago. Chile, public transport system" P'FRC Summner Annual 3 Herald Newspaper (1993): "Private bus service proves to he a killer": June 23rd 1993, Harare. 4 Khezswana, M & D A C Maunder (1993) 'International experiences of deregulated urban public transport systems". Z1RUP Annual Conference, Gweru, July 1993 anid published in Indian Journal of Transport Management 1994, Vol 18 No 7, 457-464. 5 Mackie P, J- Preston & C Nash.1(1995). "Bu~s deregulation: ten 'years. on'. Transport Re views, 195, Vol 15, No 3 .229-251. 6 Maunder, D A C & T C Mbara (1995) "T7he initial effects of introducing commuter omnibus services in Harare, Zimibab11:ve". Department of Transport, TRL 123. Transport .Research Laboratory, Crowthorne. 7 Maunder D A C & T C Mbara (19931. "Thie effect of ownership on thie performance of stage bus services in Harare, Zmaw" Department of Transport TRL, PR25. Transport Research Laboratory, C rowi homle. 8 Obudho, RA &AA Gibson (1992). "Urban Transport Modes In Nairobi'. CODATU VI, Tunis, Tunisia. 9 Transurb Consult-Inrets (1991). "Urban Transport Policy In Sub Saharan Africa". Sub Saharan Africa 'Transport Programme Conference entitled: "Satisfying Urban Public Transport Demiand". Yaounde. Cameroon, 5-8 March 1991. 10 Walters A A (1979). "The benefits of mninibuises. The case of Ki~uala Lutnlpur". Journal of Transport Economics andi Policy. September 1979, 320-334. 1 1 Watts PF, RP Turner &P RWhlite (1990). "Urban minibuses In Britain: development, user responses, operations and finanices". - -7 22 r , , --- -- -- -. 1 ; - . -- -., . -:-. .1 --- --w, . ' _ ., 1, ` . 23 Department of Transport Transport Research Crowthorne. TRL RR269, Laboratory. 12 White. P R (1981). "The benefits of * minibuses. A Comment". Journal of' Transport Economics and Policy. January 1981. 77-79. *13 White P R, R P Turner and T C Mbara (1992). 'Cost Benefit Analysis of Urban Minibus Operations". Transportation 19: 59-74. 14 White P R (1995). `Bus -and Coach deregulation'. Published in Global Transport, Spring 1995, Issue 1, 31-34. 15 World Bank (1986). "Urban Transport: A World Bank Policy Study". World Bank. Washington DC. 16 World Bank (1994]. World Development Report 1994. Infrastructure for development. World Bank, Washington DC. 0 IIMJ 'Dr.'D..C.Mauderis ilirenly Prjec .Minag,.r within the Ovrseas. Resource Centi-eofth (rnpotRsearchb, Lab oratoy ~U K; Dr. Ma'u nder joined the _then Transport and-Road Research: Laboratory in 1974 and- has over 20 years expcrience of working on urban public transport Issues. in developing countries. Hie has completed major long term assignmients in India and Zimibabwe and has experience ofw~orklng in n umerous African and Asian countries. Dr. Maunder was awarded a Ph.D. In 1983 and is a Fellow~ of the Chartered Institute of Transport, a Member of the Institution of Highways and Transportation an d the Transport Economists Group. He is author of numerous reports, journal art icles and confercnce papers on the public transport scctor. Mr. Tatenda Chenjeral Mbara graduated in Transport Planning and Operation from the University of Aston In the, United Kingdom In 1981. In 1990. he obtained an M.Sc. in Transport Plannin g and Management from the University of W"cstmiinis(cr, U.K. Hle started his working c areer. as a management- tratinee "vi~th United, transpiort and later w~7orked for a World Bank Urban' Development Project, based In the Ministry of Local Government. Rural and Urban Development (Zimibabwe) as a Transport Economist. In 1992. he was appointed a Lecturer in Transport Planning In the Department of Rural and Urban Planning at the Unive rsity of Zimbabwe. Mr..Mbara is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of.Transport (ClIT) and has held the posts of Education and Training Secretary.. Vice-Chairman and Hlonorary Secretary within the lHarare Section of the CIT. Hie has also published widely in various aspects of transport. Both Dr. Maunder and Mr. Mbara wcre jointly awarded TRY Foundation prize for Afria i 193 fr teir ape ontheurbn pblic transport industry of Zinibabwve. - MY-,Wry" ~--