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A guide for drivers of heavy goods vehicles, left hand side

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UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA THE AFRICAN HIGHWAY CODE A Guide for Drivers of Heavy Goods Vehicles Version for driving on the left TRANSPORT AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY Financed by the Government of the United Kingdom Prepared by The British Institute of Traffic Education Research under contract to The Transport and Road Research Laboratory, United Kingdom © World Copyright Reserved 1990 Extracts from the text may be reproduced provided the source is acknowledged as follows: “United Nations Economic Commission for Africa African Highway Code” ISSN 0266 5255 Published by The Transport and Road Research Laboratory Crowthorne, Berkshire United Kingdom Printed in England iii FOREWORD Road accidents involving heavy goods vehicles don’t just happen - they are caused, usually by human error. Many of these accidents could be avoided if those involved had behaved safely. Safe behaviour means not only observing the traffic laws but also having the correct attitudes towards driving. Courtesy, consideration for other road users, patience, and good manners are all essential to making the roads safe for all who use them. In the early 1980s, the Economic Commission for Africa took the initiative by developing an outline for an African Highway Code. The outline was subsequently endorsed by representatives of the African Intergovernmental Highway Organisations. As professional drivers, those in charge of heavy goods vehicles have a particular responsibility. Phase 1 of this Code is therefore devoted to such drivers. This new guide sets out to explain, in simple and clear language, the basic rules of road safety. It gives clear advice on how to drive safely in a wide range of common traffic situations. It also includes information on how to check that you, the driver, are fit to drive, and that your vehicle is also safe. Other sections deal with breakdowns and accidents, including simple first aid. The last section is a useful reference on road signs and markings, traffic rules and regulations, and the special requirements for international driving. The manual contains much useful information for both the new and the experienced heavy goods vehicle driver. It will also be of value to driving instructors and transport operators. iv FOREWORD It is my privilege to urge everyone concerned with road safety in Africa to read it carefully and follow its advice. May I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to the Government of the United Kingdom for their assistance in the production of this vital safety document for Africa. Adebayo Adedeji Executive Secretary ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This Guide has been developed by the Overseas Unit (Head: Mr J S Yerrell) of the Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL) in collaboration with the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). It is published by permission of the Director of TRRL and the Chief of the Transport, Communications and Tourism Division of the UNECA. The text and illustrations were produced by The British Institute of Traffic Education Research (Executive Director: Dr A B Clayton) under contract to TRRL (Project Manager: Mr A J Downing). The Overseas Unit wishes to thank the Governments of Cameroon and Zimbabwe for their generous assistance with the trials of draft training materials. It is also grateful to all the transport authorities and organisations in Africa and elsewhere who helped by commenting on the drafts. vi ORDERING THE GUIDE The guide has been produced in English and French and it has been distributed through a number of Government and Non-Government agencies in African countries. Copies may be obtained from these agencies or from the addresses shown below: Overseas Unit Transport and Road Research Laboratory Crowthorne Berkshire RG45 6AU United Kingdom Transport, Communications and Tourism Division United Nations Economic Commission for Africa P0 Box 60075 Addis Ababa Ethiopia vii CONTENTS Foreword iii Acknowledgements v Ordering the Guide vi Contents vii Section 1 1.1 Documents 1 1.2 Fitness to Drive 4 1.3 Route Planning 9 1.4 Useful Safety Equipment 11 1.5 Vehicle Safety Checks 13 1.6 Load Safety Checks 18 1.7 The Controls 23 1.8 Trailer Safety Checks 24 1.9 Uncoupling of Trailers 26 1.10 Coupling of Trailers 27 Section 2 2.1 Visibility and Minor Use 29 2.2 Signalling 30 2.3 Moving Off 33 2.4 Positioning 34 2.5 Junctions 36 2.6 Turning Right 37 2.7 Turning Left 40 2.8 Roundabouts 42 2.9 Following Distances 45 viii CONTENTS 2.10 Stopping Distances 47 2.11 Braking and Stopping 49 2.12 Reversing 51 2.13 Parking 53 2.14 Overtaking and Being Overtaken 55 2.15 Night Driving 59 2.16 Bad Driving Conditions . . 63 2.17 Driving on Difficult Roads . 66 Section 3 3.1 Breakdowns 71 3.2 Road Accidents 73 3.3 First Aid 76 Section 4 4.1 Traffic Regulations 83 4.2 Road Signs and Markings 87 4.3 Hazardous Load Labels 100 4.4 International Driving 101 Index 105 1 1.1 DOCUMENTS Driving regulations vary widely between countries. Usually, HGV drivers are required to have at least some of the documents listed below. Check the laws for your country and make sure that you have all the documents you need. DRIVING LICENCE It allows you to drive the vehicle or vehicles listed on the licence. In some countries, a single licence covers you for many types of vehicles. Elsewhere, you may need a separate licence for each type. HGV LICENCE In many countries, you must pass a separate test and obtain another licence to drive goods vehicles above a certain size or gross weight. Often, the minimum age for holding an HGV licence is higher than that for a car licence. HGV licences may be divided into various classes. To drive the largest goods vehicles, you may need to pass another driving test and or obtain an extra licence. REMEMBER: Make sure that you have a valid licence for the vehicle you are driving. 2 1.1 DOCUMENTS INSURANCE CERTIFICATE In most countries, it is illegal to drive any powered vehicle without some insurance cover. Your insurance certificate must be valid for the vehicle you are driving. The amount of insurance cover can vary widely. The usual minimum level covers death and injury to other people. Other forms of insurance, such as Comprehensive Insurance, cover you and property damage. Drivers are advised to check with their employers as to whether or not they are covered by personal accident policies or workmens’ compensation schemes. VEHICLE TAX Many countries require owners to pay an annual tax for each road vehicle. The amount of tax often varies according to the size of the vehicle. Proof of payment is shown in various ways such as a disc on the windscreen or number-plate. Failure to display proof of payment may be an offence. CERTIFICATE OF ROADWORTHINESS This certificate shows that a vehicle is in a fit mechanical state to be used on the roads. It may also show the maximum weight or type of load that may be carried. In some countries, vehicles must be retested at regular intervals, for example, once a year. Trailers may require their own certificate of road-worthiness. 3 1.1 DOCUMENTS LOAD DOCUMENTS Goods vehicles are often required to carry documents giving details of the load being carried, particularly if it is hazardous. In some countries, hazardous loads are banned from certain roads or the centres of some towns. Goods vehicles may also be required to have an operating permit when goods are being carried for hire or reward. REMEMBER: Find out which documents you must have. Make sure that they are all valid and, if required, carry them at all times. 4 1.2 FITNESS TO DRIVE - VISION Most of the information that a driver needs comes through his eyes. Good vision is therefore essential to safe driving. Many countries have legal minimum standards of eyesight for truck drivers. Make sure that you meet these standards at all times. Have you had your eyesight checked recently? As people get older, their eyesight tends to get worse. Regular eye checks are essential. If you need to wear glasses for driving, make sure that you always wear them. Use sun glasses in bright sunlight only. NEVER use them at night. REMEMBER: If in doubt, get your eyesight checked. 5 1.2 FITNESS TO DRIVE - ALCOHOL Never drink alcohol and drive. Alcohol is a major cause of traffic accidents in many countries. Even small amounts of alcohol can affect your driving. It is not just people who are obviously drunk who cause accidents. The effects of alcohol on driving vary but, in general, they follow the pattern below. Alcohol may give you a feeling of well-being but, in fact, it is a depressant. Even at low levels, it worsens your judgement and your driving performance. At higher levels, the risk of being involved in an accident increases dramatically. REMEMBER: NEVER drink alcohol and drive. 6 1.2 FITNESS TO DRIVE - DRUGS Many drivers take drugs or medicines at some time in their life. Few realise how they can affect their driving. Drugs may be taken for many reasons. Some medical drugs, such as mild painkillers taken for headaches, are unlikely to affect most drivers seriously. Others, such as antihistamines taken for hayfever, can cause drowsiness and are therefore dangerous if taken before driving. Drugs prescribed for serious medical conditions may have side-effects which can affect driving. So check with your doctor and follow his advice. Non-medical drugs (such as cannabis, cocaine or heroin) or medical drugs taken for non-medical reasons (such as amphetamines to stay awake) are illegal in many countries and dangerous to ALL drivers. REMEMBER: Never drive after taking drugs unless they have been declared safe by a doctor. 7 1.2 FITNESS TO DRIVE - FATIGUE Everyone knows the signs of fatigue such as yawning or aches and pains in the back and eyes. There are simple ways to prevent tiredness. YOU Obey any national laws regarding driving time. As a general rule, don’t drive for more than four hours without a break. In any period of 24 hours, don’t drive for a total of more than 10 hours. When you have a break, get out of the cab and go for a short walk. Eat carefully before and during a journey. A large meal can make you feel drowsy. Eating nothing at all is equally bad. NEVER take drngs or medicines to help keep you awake. AT NIGHT Night driving can be particularly dangerous if you are not used to it. Both driving in heavy traffic and driving along long straight roads at night can be specially tiring. The worst time is the early morning when your body normally wants to sleep. If you feel sleepy, have a break. REMEMBER: Avoid driving for more than 4 hours without a break. 8 1.2 FITNESS TO DRIVE - FATIGUE YOUR CAB A lot of driving fatigue is caused by a bad driving position. Adjust your seat to the most comfortable position possible. Have both knees and elbows slightly bent and the hands resting naturally on the steering wheel. Keep the cab cool if possible. A stuffy atmosphere is dangerous. Keep the windows and vents open as much as possible. Keep the windscreen and lights clean. Looking through a dirty windscreen at a poorly lit road can make you feel very tired. Noises and rattles are also often tiring. Find out where they’re coming from and prevent them as best you can. REMEMBER: If you do feel sleepy, stop and have a rest. 9 1.3 ROUTE PLANNING — Obey all company rules about routes. If you are responsible for your route, then planning it carefully in advance can save you time. It also makes your job easier and safer. If you are unsure of your route, check a map or ask for directions before you start. Make a careful note of the road names or numbers and any towns and villages along the way. Keep the details with you so that you can check them during your journey. ROUTES TO AVOID Make sure that your route does not contain any unsuitable roads for your vehicle. In particular, avoid: • Roads which are likely to be flooded in the rainy season. • Steep hills when carrying heavy loads or pulling trailers. • Low bridges when carrying a high load. • Narrow roads when carrying wide loads. Check any local route restrictions on heavy goods vehicles. 10 1.3 ROUTE PLANNING HAZARDOUS LOADS In many countries, vehicles carrying hazardous goods, such as inflammable goods or liquids, are banned from certain roads. If your vehicle has dangerous goods on board, check your route carefully. If necessary, notify the appropriate authorities of your journey. REFUELLING On long journeys, you may need to refuel on route. Check where the service stations are. In rural areas, make sure that you fill up regularly. JOURNEY TIMES Estimating journey times is important so that you can plan your meal breaks and arrive at your destination on time. Your average speed will depend upon many factors. Think about the types of road, the weather, and the likely traffic. Don’t forget to allow time for your stops. If you do find yourself running late, don’t be tempted to go faster to make up time. REMEMBER: Plan your journey and save time and trouble. 11 1.4 USEFUL SAFETY EQUIPMENT You are recommended to carry certain items of safety equipment in your vehicle. Some of these items may be required by law. WARNING TRIANGLE to let other road users know that you have broken down. FIRST AID KIT containing a proper range of dressings, bandages, strips, and safety pins. Don’t forget some scissors (or a knife) and some antiseptic wipes for cleaning any cuts. 12 1.4 USEFUL SAFETY EQUIPMENT FIRE EXTINGUISHER Dry Powder BCF There are two main types of extinguisher - dry powder and BCF liquid gas. BCF is generally better at putting out petrol fires or those due to electrical faults. Check that your extinguisher is suitable for dealing with fires involving your load as well as the vehicle. All extinguishers should be checked regularly to make sure that they are in working order. Other useful safety equipment includes: TORCH OR LAMP SPARE BULBS AND FUSES SHOVEL TOW ROPE OR BAR SPARE FAN BELT SPARE WHEEL AND JACK REMEMBER: Safety is your responsibility. 13 1.5 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS Before starting your journey, always make sure that your vehicle and load are safe. This simple schedule of safety checks will help you spot any faults early. TYRE PRESSURES Check all tyres including the spare (if fitted). CORRECT pressure ensures maximum stability and road-holding. It also reduces tread wear. UNDERINFLATION causes tyres to overheat and burst. It also makes the vehicle less safe when braking or cornering and causes increased tyre wear. OVERINFLATED tyres can cause rapid wear in the centre of the tread. There is also more danger of damage to the tyre casing. 14 1.5 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS TYRE CONDITION Check the walls of the tyres for cuts and bulges. Check the tread depth all round and across the whole width of the tyre. Remove all nails, stones and other objects from the tread and from between twin tyres. Make the same checks for the spare wheel (where fitted). REMEMBER:Never drive if any of the tyres have bald patches. 15 1.5 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS WHEEL NUTS Check all wheel nuts and tighten if necessary. Look for signs of “weeping” (brown streaks) at the base of the nut. It shows that the nut is loose. If any wheel studs break off, Don’t drive the vehicle. OIL Check levels in the engine, gearbox, and transmission. The levels should always be between the MAX and MIN marks. WATER Check levels in radiator, battery, and windscreen washer bottle. Use distilled water to top up the battery. Only use cold, boiled water if recommended to do so. 16 1.5 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS WINDSCREEN/WINDOWS Check that they are clean, both inside and outside, and are not cracked. WINDSCREEN WIPERS/WASHERS Check blades for wear. Replace if worn. Check washer jets for dirt. If blocked, clean out with a pin. MIRRORS Check that they are clean and correctly adjusted. LIGHTS/ INDICATORS Check that they work. Replace any blown bulbs. Clean lens glasses. HORN Check that it works. BRAKES Check by depressing pedal. Resistance is felt if the brakes are working properly. Check air brake gauge (if fitted). 17 1.5 VEHICLE SAFETY CHECKS CAB Check that the driver’s seat is locked in position and that there are no loose objects lying in the cab. Check doors and windows. Make sure that all locks are working. If “up and over” type cab, make sure that the cab is secured to the locking rings. REGISTRATION AND WARNING PLATES Check that they are clean and securely fixed to the vehicle. ANTI-THEFT DEVICES If fitted, make sure that they are OFF before starting the engine. REMEMBER: ALWAYS check that your vehicle is safe and legal BEFORE starting a journey. 18 1.6 LOAD SAFETY CHECKS The safety of your load is as important as the safety of your vehicle. Get into the habit of carrying out these simple load safety checks before each journey. BEFORE LOADING Check the contents of your load. If it contains hazardous materials, you should know how to deal with them in an emergency. Hazardous load markings are shown in Section 4.3. Always carry a fire extinguisher appropriate to your load. Check that: Your vehicle is suitable for the load it is to carry. The gross weight of your vehicle is within the legal (plated) limit. The gross weight per axle is within the legal (plated) limit. The length, width, and height of the load are within permitted limits. 19 1.6 LOAD SAFETY CHECKS Your load should be evenly distributed and secure on your vehicle. LOADING THE VEHICLE Do not overload an individual axle or the vehicle. Overloading is dangerous. It will damage your vehicle and the road. Spread the weight along the length and across the width of the vehicle. Any extra weight should be placed towards the rear of the vehicle and above an axle. This will help both your steering and braking performance. SECURING LOADS Loose loads may slip whilst the vehicle is moving causing you to lose control. Always make sure that your load is secure before you move off. Flat bed vehicles Most large loads are roped down. The method of roping depends on the shape of the load. Generally, ropes should cross the load between opposite rope hooks. 20 1.6 LOAD SAFETY CHECKS For heavy equipment, chains and clamps are often used. Do NOT attach chains to rope hooks. Pass the chains around the chassis of the vehicle. Make sure that they do not foul any vital parts, such as air lines, trailer cables, etc. Take care when locking clamps - they snap shut very quickly. Any rope or chain ends should be tucked securely away so that they cannot come loose. Use lorry sheets to protect your load. Make sure that the sheets cover the whole load and are well tied down. Box vans/Trailers Pack the individual items so that they prevent each other from moving or falling over. If in doubt, rope them down. 21 1.6 LOAD SAFETY CHECKS Tipper Vehicles Bulk loads, such as sand or gravel, tend to spread themselves evenly as they settle. Make sure that the load is no higher than the sides of the body. Fly sheet the load, if necessary, to prevent spillage and provide protection from the weather. Wide and Long Loads Observe any local regulations regarding the marking of such loads. Make sure that any marker boards are easily seen by other drivers. 22 1.6 LOAD SAFETY CHECKS Livestock Loads When carrying livestock, it is best to keep them in individual compartments. Otherwise, they should be head-tied to the sides of the vehicle. Tankers Make sure that your tanker is suitable for the liquid it is to carry. For example, milk tankers must not be used to carry fuel. Make sure that all compartment covers are shut. ALL VEHICLES Check that all fastenings are secure and any doors shut and preferably locked. REMEMBER: Check your load - is it safe? 23 1.7 THE CONTROLS Sometimes, you may have to drive a vehicle that you are not used to. Make sure you know where all the basic controls are BEFORE you set off. In particular, check where the following controls are and how to use them. The diagram shows the usual position of certain controls REMEMBER: Check where the controls are and how they work BEFORE you move off. 24 1.8 TRAILER SAFETY CHECKS Whatever type of trailer you use, get into the habit of making these checks every time you use it. “FIFTH WHEEL” or AIR LINES “DRAWBAR” or “BOX” Must be fully connected Must be secured and switched and locked in position on using the clip or bolt. Must not be damaged or leaking. TRAILER LEGS ELECTRICS Must be fully wound up All electrical leads must be and the winding handle plugged in. Check that the lights either secured or removed. and indicators work. 25 1.8 TRAILER SAFETY CHECKS BRAKES REAR/SIDE DOORS Must be off Must be shut firmly and secured. REGISTRATION AND WARNING PLATES Must be clean, secured and meet any legal requirements. If the law requires, make sure that the registration plates of the tractor and trailer are the same. REMEMBER: Make sure that your trailer is in a safe condition and that it fully meets all legal requirements. 26 1.9 UNCOUPLING OF TRAILERS There are several different types of trailers. The coupling system described below is for fifth-wheel trailers. Similar principles apply to drawbar and box trailers except that they have no fifth wheel. Before uncoupling, select a suitable site. Ideally, it should be flat and firm. If the ground is soft, use a heavy piece of wood to support the trailer legs. Apply the master braking system. Apply the trailer brake firmly. Lower the trailer legs to their fullest extent and insert locking pin. Switch off and disconnect air and electric lines. Unlock and open locking mechanism. Drive tractor unit forward until clear of trailer. REMEMBER: Without the trailer, the handling of the tractor unit will be very different. 27 1.10 COUPLING OF TRAILERS Before coupling, make sure that the trailer brakes are firmly on and that the legs are locked down. SLOWLY reverse the tractor unit under the trailer. Never drive hard into it - you may damage the mechanism. You will hear a ‘clunk’ when the tractor and trailer are properly connected. Check correct locking by engaging first gear and pulling forward gently. Secure the locking pin, clip or bolt. Connect the air and electric lines and switch on. Release trailer brakes. Wind up and secure the trailer legs. REMEMBER: Before driving off: Check that the load (if any) is secure. Check that the air tanks (if fitted) are full. 28 This page has intentionally been left blank. 29 2.1 VISIBILITY AND MIRROR USE Being able to see clearly to the front, side, and rear of the vehicle is essential to safe driving. All vehicles have blind spots - areas to the side and rear of the vehicle which you cannot normally see from the cab. Mirrors must be properly adjusted to give as much view to the side and rear as possible. Correctly adjusted mirrors (on BOTH sides of the cab) will show both the tail-end of your vehicle and the road behind. In the diagram, the yellow areas show the parts of the road which can be seen through the mirrors. Overtaking vehicles may still be hidden from view. Always check to the side before changing course. REMEMBER: Even with clean, well-adjusted mirrors, you may not be able to see directly behind or to the sides of your vehicle. 30 2.2 SIGNALLING Signals are used to tell other road users what you intend to do. Make sure that you know how to signal clearly. Signals must be: correct clear given in plenty of time given at the correct time cancelled as soon as the manoeuvre is complete Never assume that a signal gives you the right to carry out a manoeuvre. Always make sure that it is safe to do so by looking all round beforehand. CORRECT SIGNALS Use only those signals given in the National Highway Code. The flashing of the headlights and the use of the horn should ONLY be used to warn others of your presence. 31 2.2 SIGNALLING NEVER signal to other road users to come on or to overtake. Let them make their own decision. CLEAR SIGNALS Use arm, not hand, signals as well as indicators when you need to make your intentions absolutely clear. In the situation shown opposite, use an arm signal as well as indicators to show to other road users that you are turning into the narrow entrance before the junction. GOOD TIMING Give the signal in plenty of time. If turning, you should always signal before you start to slow down or brake. 32 2.2 SIGNALLING CORRECT TIMING If you want to turn into the second of two junctions which are close together, do NOT signal until you have passed the first junction. Otherwise, you may confuse a driver waiting in the first junction. CANCEL SIGNALS Always cancel your signal as soon as your manoeuvre is complete. Leaving an indicator flashing can confuse other road users. OTHER DRIVERS’ SIGNALS Watch out for other drivers’ signals. Don’t always assume that they are correct. Where necessary, hang back until you are sure what the other driver is going to do. REMEMBER: Clear and correct signals help all road users. 33 2.3 MOVING OFF Before moving off look all round to make sure that it is safe to do so. Do NOT move off if you will force another vehicle to brake sharply or alter course. Look in your rear-view mirrors. If the road is clear, select the correct gear for your load and the gradient of the road. Indicate right. Use an arm signal, if necessary, as an extra indication. Look in your rear-view mirrors again. If the road is still clear, move smoothly away from the side of the road and take up your normal road position. REMEMBER: The sequence of actions is: MIRRORS GEAR SIGNAL MIRRORS MOVE OFF 34 2.4 POSITIONING Keep to the left unless road signs indicate otherwise. If the road is marked in lanes, keep within the lanes. Do NOT straddle them. When approaching a hazard, position your vehicle so that you have enough room to get through safely. Long and heavy vehicles need more room to manoeuvre. So it is vital to get into the correct position on the road before you reach a corner or bend. RIGHT-HAND BEND Your vehicle should be close to the left-hand edge of the road. This reduces the risk of the rear wheels crossing the centre of the road into the path of oncoming vehicles. LEFT-HAND BEND Your vehicle should be close to the centre of the road or the outside of your traffic lane. This helps to ensure that the rear of your vehicle does not mount the nearside kerb or run off the road. It also improves your view of the road ahead. 35 2.4 POSITIONING SHARP CORNERS Some corners may be too sharp for normal positioning. Your vehicle may need to cross the centre line to get round the bend. Take great care. Make sure that the road ahead is clear of other vehicles before you move out. CRESTS On roads with blind crests or summits, you cannot see over the top of the hill. Keep your vehicle on your side of the road when approaching the top. Approach cautiously and be prepared to slow down, or even stop, if the road ahead is blocked. REMEMBER: Position your vehicle correctly BEFORE every hazard. 36 2.5 JUNCTIONS At some junctions, the priority is clearly indicated by signs and or markings. ALWAYS obey them. At others, no priority is shown. Even at junctions where you have priority as shown by a warning sign, take care. Do NOT assume that vehicles on other roads will stop. Sound your horn if necessary to warn others of your presence. At junctions where no priority is shown, approach the junction slowly and be prepared to stop. Check the other roads. Sound your horn if necessary to warn others of your presence. If local rules apply, such as “GIVE WAY to the left”, OBEY them. REMEMBER: Approach ALL junctions with care. 37 2.6 TURNING RIGHT As soon as you see the junction ahead, PREPARE to position your vehicle correctly for the turn. Look in the rear-view mirrors to check the position and movement of any traffic behind. When safe, signal right to warn others that you are going to turn. Look in the rear-view mirrors again to make sure that it is safe to move out. Move out towards the centre of the road keeping to your own side of any centre line markings. If you are driving a long vehicle you may need to keep well to the nearside of the road to be able to turn safely. Keep a careful watch for vehicles overtaking. 38 2.6 TURNING RIGHT Reduce speed and select a lower gear, one which will allow you to turn the corner smoothly and safely. Check for vehicles coming towards you. If necessary, brake gently to a stop at the entrance to the junction. Look all round to make sure that you can turn safely without causing other vehicles to slow down or alter course. Move forward and turn into the side road keeping to your side of the road. Try not to cut the corner. You may hit another vehicle waiting in the side road. 39 2.6 TURNING RIGHT Make sure that you can enter the side road safely before starting the turn. If another vehicle is waiting in the side road, it may be impossible to complete the turn. The driver in the picture opposite cannot do so. If necessary, let waiting vehicles leave the side road before starting your turn. When turning right from a minor into a major road, always STOP or GIVE WAY before starting your turn. Wait until there is a safe gap in the traffic on the major road. REMEMBER: You should always check your MIRRORS before you SIGNAL AND before you start your MANOEUVRE 40 2.7 TURNING RIGHT As soon as you see the junction ahead, PREPARE to position your vehicle correctly for the turn. Look in the rear-view mirror to check the position and movement of any traffic behind. When safe, signal left to warn others that you are going to turn. If you are driving a long vehicle, you may have to move to the centre of the road in order to be able to make the turn. Check your nearside minor for any vehicles overtaking on your nearside. Reduce speed and select a lower gear, one that will allow you to turn the corner smoothly and safely. 41 2.7 TURNING LEFT Make sure that you can enter the side road safely before starting the turn. If vehicles are waiting in the side road, it may be impossible to complete the turn. If necessary, let waiting vehicles leave the side road before starting your turn. Move forward and turn into the side road keeping to your side of the road. Do not swing out. You may hit another vehicle waiting in the side road. Do not cut the corner. The rear of your vehicle may hit a pedestrian standing on the kerb. If you are turning left from a minor to a major road, always STOP or GIVE WAY before starting your turn. 42 2.8 ROUNDABOUTS Drive slowly through roundabouts to avoid losing control. Always follow the rules. GIVE WAY RULES In most countries, traffic on the roundabout usually has right of way over traffic entering the roundabout. Check the Highway Code to see which rules apply. In a few countries, the OPPOSITE rule applies and vehicles entering the roundabout have right of way. Check road signs and markings carefully to find out which rule applies. MIRROR USE Check your mirrors for other road users both when approaching a roundabout and whilst driving around it. Be prepared for vehicles overtaking you on either side. Watch out particularly for bicycles and small vehicles on your nearside. 43 2.8 ROUNDABOUTS POSITIONING AND SIGNALLING TURNING LEFT Signal left as you approach the roundabout. Keep in the left-hand lane of the roundabout. Continue signalling until you leave the roundabout. If you are driving a long vehicle, you may have to swing wide to make the turn. Check your nearside mirrors for smaller vehicles overtaking on your inside. STRAIGHT AHEAD Do NOT signal before you reach the roundabout. Approach in the left-hand lane. Keep in that lane around the roundabout. Signal left as you pass the exit before the one you wish to take. 44 2.8 ROUNDABOUTS TURNING RIGHT Signal right in good time on the approach to the roundabout. Approach in the right-hand lane or towards the centre of the road. Keep near to the centre of the roundabout until you reach the exit before the one you wish to take. Check your mirrors. Signal left and, when the road is clear, move towards your nearside. REMEMBER: Always approach roundabouts at such a speed that you can stop safely if necessary. 452.9FOLLOWING DISTANCESWhen following other vehicles, keep a safe distance behind them. If you are too close and the vehicle in front stops suddenly, you may hit it. In the picture, the two vehicles are about a lorry length apart. If they are travelling at more than around 15km/hr and the yellow lorry stops suddenly, the white lorry will hit it. The safe rule is never to get closer than the total stopping distance of your vehicle. On a good, dry surface, keep a safe distance behind by allowing at least a two second gap between yourself and the vehicle in front. Leave a bigger gap when the road or weather conditions are bad. 462.9FOLLOWING DISTANCESYou can check this gap easily using the TWO SECOND RULE. It works like this . Watch the vehicle in front. As it passes a roadside object such as a sign, start saying slowly to yourself the following words - “ONE THOUSAND AND ONE - ONE THOUSAND AND TWO” These words take about two seconds to say. If you have NOT finished counting before you pass the same object, the sign, you are TOO CLOSE. SLOW DOWN AND INCREASE THE GAP. REMEMBER:Leave a bigger gap when road or weather conditions are bad. 472.10STOPPING DISTANCESAll vehicles take time and distance to stop. Your total distance taken to stop is made up of: •the distance travelled during your REACTION TIME •and your VEHICLE’S BRAKING DISTANCE Total Stopping Distance Your REACTION TIME The BRAKING DISTANCE is is the time you take the distance taken to stop once between first seeing the the brakes have been applied. hazard and starting to apply your brakes. The higher the speed of the vehicle, the longer the distance taken to stop. 482.10STOPPING DISTANCESAt 50 km/hr, on a good, dry surface, the shortest stopping distance is 25 metres - about a quarter of the length of a football pitch. At 80 km/hr, under the same conditions, the shortest stopping distance increases to 55 metres -about half the length of a football pitch. Stopping distances are greatly increased by - wet or loose road surfaces, worn tyres, heavy loads, poor braking systems, and tired drivers. REMEMBER:Whatever the conditions, keep your speed down so that you can stop in the distance you can see is clear. 492.11BRAKING AND STOPPINGBefore stopping, check all round to make sure that it is safe to slow down. Try not to cause any other vehicle to brake or alter course suddenly. When it is safe to slow down, brake smoothly and in a controlled manner. As your vehicle slows, select the correct gear for your reduced road speed. When you have come to a complete stop, apply the parking brake and select neutral gear. Never stop suddenly, unless it is an emergency. Harsh braking could result in loss of control. In the case of an articulated vehicle, jack-knifing may occur. Always brake and slow down to a safe speed before reaching a bend or other danger. Never leave braking too late. On wet or slippery surfaces, apply brakes gently to avoid skidding. ___ 502.11BRAKING AND STOPPINGEMERGENCY BRAKING If you have to brake in an emergency, use smooth, firm braking trying not to lock the wheels. If the wheels do lock up, don’t panic. Ease the pressure off the foot brake to allow the wheels to turn, then brake again. Brake in a straight line. NEVER use the “MASTER” system for braking in an emergency. If you do, ALL the wheels will lock up, and the vehicle will skid, possibly out of control. REMEMBER:Always try to brake gently and in plenty of time. 512.12REVERSINGGreat care must be taken when reversing your vehicle - there is danger behind! If you are driving an articulated vehicle or carrying a wide or long load, get assistance before you start to reverse. Never reverse from a side road into a main road. ON LEVEL GROUND You must make sure that the road behind is clear. Don’t rely only on what you can see through your rear-view mirrors. Small children and other hazards can easily be missed. If in doubt, get out of the cab and check for yourself. Get help from another driver whenever possible. Don’t rely on children or non-drivers to help. The helper should always stand to the side, never directly behind the vehicle. Reverse slowly. Check constantly through your mirrors and by looking out of your side window. 522.12REVERSINGIf you are not sure how far the back of your vehicle is from an obstruction, get out of the cab and look. Always remember that the front of your vehicle is also moving and may obstruct other vehicles’ movements. Keep looking all round as you reverse. DOWNHILL Reversing downhill can be a very dangerous manoeuvre. The vehicle can easily run away from you or the constant use of the brakes can overheat or empty the system. You may need to use both the foot and hand brakes. If a vehicle approaches from behind, you should stop until you are sure that there is no danger. UPHILL Reversing uphill can be very difficult, particularly with a heavy load. Keep it slow and steady. REMEMBER:Reversing is dangerous - to others as well as to yourself. Be sure, be slow. 532.13PARKINGWhere parking places are available, use them. If you have to park at the roadside, you should always park parallel and close to the kerb or edge of the road. Park on the shoulder wherever possible. NEVER PARK near places or signs such as these: or where you would cause an obstruction to other traffic (for example double- parking) 542.13PARKINGBefore leaving your vehicle, check that the parking brake is on and that the doors are locked. AT NIGHT At night, try to use a secure parking area, especially if you are carrying a dangerous or hazardous load. If a secure compound is not available, leave your vehicle in a well-lit place where it will not be a hazard to other road users. Leave your parking lights on where necessary. Always park on your own side of the road. 55- 2.14 OVERTAKING AND BEING OVERTAKENOnly overtake when it is safe to do so. DO NOT OVERTAKE in places like these: When signs or road markings ban overtaking Where you cannot see far enough ahead , such as at: a bend on the brow of a hill or hump bridge 562.14OVERTAKING AND BEING OVERTAKENWhere you might endanger other road users, such as at or near a: junction pedestrian crossing level crossing 572.14 OVERTAKING AND BEING OVERTAKENOVERTAKING Normally, you should overtake only on the right. Before moving out, make sure that the road is clear both ahead and behind. Signal left. Overtake smoothly and quickly. Leave plenty of room between your vehicle and the one being overtaken. When you have passed the slower vehicle, signal right and move to the right side of the road. Do NOT cut in. Leave plenty of room between you and the front of the vehicle you have overtaken. Cancel your signal. You may overtake on the right ONLY: —When the vehicle in front has indicated that it intends to turn left —When you want to turn right at a junction —In a one-way Street where vehicles may pass either side — When moving slowly in traffic queues. 582.14OVERTAKING AND BEING OVERTAKENWhen preparing to overtake large or long vehicles, stay far enough back to allow you to see well ahead. Never follow another overtaking vehicle unless you are sure that the road ahead is clear. Remember:Follow the usual procedure: MIRRORS SIGNAL MANOEUVRE. BEING OVERTAKEN If you are being overtaken, do NOT increase your speed. Slow down if necessary to allow the overtaking vehicle to pass safely. REMEMBER:It can take a long time to overtake. Make sure that you have plenty of time and distance to overtake safely. 592.15NIGHT DRIVINGLIGHTS At night, it is important to be able to see clearly and for others to see you. Keep your lights, windscreen and minors clean. When driving at night, always use your headlights. Switch on your headlights as soon as it starts to get dark. Headlights help you — to see…………………………………..and be seen REMEMBER:Keep your lights, windscreen, and mirrors clean. 602.15NIGHT DRIVINGNever drive at night with only your parking lights on. They do little to help you - See…………………………………………or be seen. REMEMBER:Parking lights are for parking, not driving 612.15NIGHT DRIVINGYou can see further on full beam than on dipped headlights. So, always use full beam unless it will dazzle others. On full beam, you can see about 100 metres ahead on an unlit road. Full beam – l00m On dipped beam on an unlit road, you can see about 40 metres ahead. So stay below 65km/h so that you can stop within the distance you can see in your headlights. Dipped beam - 40m 622.15NIGHT DRIVINGNever dazzle other drivers. They may lose control of their vehicles and hit you. Dip your headlights as soon as you see another vehicle coming towards you. Dip your headlights when following other drivers. Your lights shining in their minors may dazzle them. REMEMBER:When you have to dip your lights for other road users, SLOW DOWN. 632.16BAD DRIVING CONDITIONSBad weather conditions make it more difficult to see. Even in daylight, if the visibility is poor. use your headlights. Bad weather can also affect the road surface, making it more difficult to control the vehicle. If this happens, SLOW DOWN. SUN Bright sunlight and reflections can dazzle. Sunlight also causes shadows which may hide a pedestrian, vehicle, or animal. Sunglasses help to reduce glare and improve vision in strong sunlight. Hot sun can soften the road surface causing the tread of the tyres to clog so reducing grip and increasing braking distances. WIND Strong winds affect all vehicles but especially those with high sides. Look out for signs of high winds such as dust clouds or trees bending. Be particularly careful on bridges and exposed stretches of roads. If you feel your vehicle being moved by the wind, slow down or stop. Be careful in wooded areas where trees and branches may fall into the road during a storm. 642.16BAD DRIVING CONDITIONSDUST In dry conditions on gravel or unmade roads, dust from other vehicles may make it difficult to see. If this happens, SLOW DOWN. If necessary, get off the road until the dust has cleared. When following slower-moving vehicles which are causing a dust cloud, stay well back. Never overtake through a dust cloud. Only overtake when you are sure that the road ahead is clear. REMEMBER:In bad conditions, slow down. 652.16BAD DRIVING CONDITIONSRAIN Rain makes it difficult to see ahead. It can also make the road surface slippery. So, if it is raining, or the road surface is wet, SLOW DOWN. Switch on your wipers as soon as the rain starts. Use your cab heater to demist the windscreen and side windows. Wipe your offside mirror to give you a clear view behind. Switch on your dipped headlights, even in daytime, if the visibility is poor. In very heavy rain, your wipers may not be able to cope. If possible, pull off the road and stop until the storm passes. REMEMBER:Slow down in wet weather conditions. 662.17DRIVING ON DIFFICULT ROADSDriving on minor roads can often cause extra problems. Always take special care and plan ahead. Keep a special watch for signs of danger ahead. HILLS Take special care when approaching steep hills. Going Downhill Select a lower gear to help slow your vehicle. Don’t rely on your brakes on long hills - they may get hot and ‘fade’ or the air pressure may fall below the minimum. On narrow roads, give way to the vehicle going up the hill wherever possible. Going Uphill Use a lower gear or gears to drive up hills. Do not labour the engine. Select the correct gear in plenty of time. 672.17DRIVING ON DIFFICULT ROADSSINGLE LANE ROADS Single lane roads may have shoulders on either side to allow passing. Otherwise, special passing places may be provided. When you see an approaching vehicle, slow down. Select the smoothest part of the shoulder and pull gently off the road to allow the other vehicle to pass. NARROW BRIDGES Make sure that narrow bridges are strong enough and wide enough for your vehicle and its load. Check any road signs before the bridge. Always give way to other vehicles when approaching a narrow bridge. Only when the road is clear should you drive slowly across. High winds may cause problems on exposed bridges. Take great care and drive slowly. If in doubt, do not cross. 682.17DRIVING ON DIFFICULT ROADSRIVER AND FORD CROSSINGS Before crossing any river at a ford, make sure that you know how deep the water is. Check any markers at the water’s edge. Fast-running water is usually shallow, slow-moving water may be deep. Avoid areas of large boulders, sunken trees, or flat sand. Drive slowly into the water. Make sure that you don’t cause a bow wave. It could flood the engine. Cross at a slow, steady speed. Do NOT stop during the crossing. The wheels may sink into the river bed. If the water is high or the exhaust pipe is low down, slip the clutch and increase the revs to keep water out of the exhaust. Once you reach the other bank, apply the brakes several times to dry out the linings. Make sure that they work effectively before driving on. 692.17DRIVING ON DIFFICULT ROADSLEVEL CROSSINGS Approach all level crossings with great care. If required by law, STOP. Level crossings may be controlled by a gate, barrier, or warning light or bell. If the barriers are down or warning signals are showing, STOP. Only cross the track when the barriers have lifted or the warning signals stopped. Remember, more than one train may be due. Some level crossings have no barrier or warning signal. At such places, slow down and, if necessary, stop. Look and listen in both directions to make sure that no train is coming. Also check that the road ahead is clear. If both the track and road are clear, drive across quickly. Never stop on or close to the tracks. If your vehicle breaks down on the crossing, leave the vehicle immediately. Only if you are certain that no train is coming, should you try to remove it. If you are driving a slow-moving or long vehicle, always stop before the crossing. If there is a signalman, check if a train is due. REMEMBER:Always check for trains before you cross the tracks. 70 This page is left intentionally blank 713.1BREAKDOWNSEven the best maintained vehicle may break down. If you break down or you have a puncture, or a problem with your load, act quickly and safely to prevent the damage getting worse. STOP in a controlled way as quickly as possible. •Park your vehicle off the road if you can. •Apply the parking brake and switch off the ignition. PROTECT THE SCENE If your vehicle is fitted with hazard warning lights, switch them on. Make sure that they are clearly visible in both directions. If any part of your vehicle or load is on the road, use a warning triangle to tell other road users that there is an obstruction ahead. Avoid using boulders or stones instead of a warning triangle. Place the warning triangle at least 50 metres behind your vehicle. Make sure that it can be clearly seen by traffic approaching from behind. 723.1 BREAKDOWNSIf drivers have a problem seeing your vehicle because of a bend or hill, place your triangle on the far side of the bend or hill. ASSESS THE PROBLEM •If your load has slipped, try and stop any more from falling off. But do NOT attempt to do so if heavy objects are likely to fall off and hit you. •If any part of your load has fallen on to the road, try and move it to the side but ONLY if you can do so safely. •If you are working on your vehicle at the side of the road, keep a careful watch for passing traffic. Whenever possible, work on the side of the vehicle away from the road. •If you have to go for help, always lock your vehicle securely. Where possible, leave someone to guard the vehicle. Never leave your keys in the vehicle, even for a moment. REMEMBER:If any part of your vehicle or load is blocking the road, make sure that other road users are given plenty of warning. 733.2ROAD ACCIDENTSIf you are involved in a road accident, you must STOP and obey the National laws on accident procedures. Unless these laws demand otherwise, you should do the following. PROTECT THE SCENE Even the smallest crash can quickly turn into a major disaster unless other road users are warned that the road is blocked. Turn off the ignition and apply the parking brake. Warn approaching drivers by4 placing a warning triangle at least 50 metres behind your vehicle. Stop anyone smoking or using a naked flame near the crash. 743.2ROAD ACCIDENTSATTEND TO THE INJURED Check for injuries amongst the accident victims. Apply first aid if necessary (see Section 3.3). If there are serious injuries, try and get medical help. If possible, telephone for the emergency services. TAKE DETAILS OF THE ACCIDENT If your vehicle was involved in the accident, you may be required by law to report the circumstances to the police. Your insurance company and your employer will also require details. Make a note of: Date, time and place of the Any damage to the vehicles involved accident Weather and road surface Names and addresses of other conditions driver(s) and witnesses Brief description of the circumstances Details of the injured and their injuries 753.2ROAD ACCIDENTSA simple drawing or map can help to describe what happened. Show:the outline of the vehicles their direction of travel (use arrows) their positions at the moment of impact the road signs and markings the names/numbers of the roads REMEMBER:Keep calm. Protect the scene. Attend to the injured. Take details of the accident. 763.3FIRST AIDIn an accident, the lives of the injured can depend upon certain simple actions being taken. So: •Keep calm. •Don’t smoke. •Don’t give any injured person any food or drink. •Move the injured as little as possible. You may have to move the accident victim if: •He is lying in the road and at risk of being hit by traffic. •He is in a vehicle which is on fire or in a dangerous condition. •He is unconscious and needs to be put into the “recovery position”. •There is no medical help likely to arrive at the scene. Quickly check each victim’s:Airway — breathing Bleeding Consciousness 773.3FIRST AIDAIRWAY Is he breathing? If he does not reply to questions and is not breathing, then: Loosen any tight clothing around his chest or neck. Checck to see if there is anyCheck blockage in his mouth or windpipe. Clear out if possible. Carefully tip the head backwards placing one hand under the neck and the other under the head. Bring the jaw forward so that the tongue is not blocking the airway. If the victim does not start to breathe normally, you will need to give him the “kiss of life”. 783.3FIRST AIDThe Kiss of Life Keep his head tilted backwards and pinch his nostrils with your thumb and index finger. With the other hand, take hold of his chin and open his mouth. Take a deep breath and place your mouth over his. Breath out slowly into his mouth. His chest should rise. Take your mouth away. His chest should fall. Take another deep breath. Repeat about every four seconds until the victim starts to breathe normally. DON’T GIVE UP! It may take some time for him to be able to breathe on his own. 793.3FIRST AID- BLEEDING - Is he bleeding? - If the victim is bleeding heavily:If possible, lie him flat on the ground and reassure him. Find out where the bleeding is coming from. Press on wound with clean cloth, if possible. Otherwise, use your hand. If bleeding does not stop, press harder. Release pressure briefly every ten minutes. CONSCIOUSNESS - Is he conscious? If he is breathing and answers questions, then Lie the victim on his back and keep him warm. If he is breathing but does not answer questions, then Put him in the recovery position to stop him choking on his own blood, tongue, or vomit. 803.3FIRST AIDThe Recovery Position Place the victim on his back on a level surface. Kneel beside him. Loosen any tight clothing. Extend the arm and leg nearest to you. His elbow and knee should be slightly bent. Turn his head towards you. Grip his far shoulder and upper thigh and gently pull him towards you so that he rolls on to his front. Pull his jaw forward to make sure that his tongue is at the front of his mouth and not blocking his airway. 813.3FIRST AIDHas his heart stopped? Check for a pulse in his neck. If there is no pulse: Protecting his neck, turn him on his back. Keep your palm and fingers Place the heel of your hand on the lower half of his breastbone. off his chest. Cover this hand with your other hand. Keeping your arms straight, rock forward to press down firmly on his breastbone. Repeat once a second. 82 This page has been left intentionally blank 834.1TRAFFIC REGULATIONSTraffic rules and regulations help make: •the roads safe for all who use them, and •traffic flow freely along the roads. Every country has its own set of traffic laws. You should make sure that you know the law relating to your own country. Ignorance is no excuse for breaking the law. In general, traffic laws relate to: the driver, the vehicle, and the driving task itself. A brief summary of the most common laws is given below. Use the list as a check of your country’s most important traffic laws. THE LAW ON DRIVERS You MUST: •have a valid driving licence for the class of vehicle you intend to drive •not suffer from any physical disability that seriously affects your driving •meet the required standard for eyesight 844.1TRAFFIC REGULATIONSTHE LAW ON VEHICLES Your vehicle (and trailer, if fitted) MUST: • be properly insured• be properly licensed and taxed •be fitted with suitable tyres • be in a roadworthy condition The following components must be in working order and properly adjusted: •brakes and steering• horn •minors• lights and reflectors •speedometer• exhaust system •windscreen wipers and washers Your load MUST: •be properly secured so that it cannot shift or fall off •must not stick out to the front, side, or rear of the vehicle beyond any legal limits •not exceed any legal weight limits. 854.1TRAFFIC REGULATIONSTHE LAW ON DRIVING When driving you MUST: •be able to exercise proper control over the vehicle at all times •give way to pedestrians on authorised crossings •obey speed limits •obey traffic signs and markings which give orders •obey traffic signals (robots) •obey the orders of a police officer or other authority •use lights at night •and headlights on unlit roads 864.1TRAFFIC REGULATIONSWhen driving, you MUST NOT: •drive recklessly or without due care and attention •drive under the influence of alcohol or drugs •drive a vehicle with a defective silencer or one that emits excessive smoke or fumes •carry passengers in a way likely to cause danger •dazzle other drivers with your headlights •stop or park your vehicle in prohibited places •park your vehicle so that it causes an unnecessary obstruction •park at night on the left-hand side of the road REMEMBER:Ignorance of the law is no excuse. 874.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSIt is essential that you understand all road signs and markings. You must also know how to act on their instructions. Their meanings are often given in a Highway Code or special leaflet. If available, read them and make sure that you know the meanings of all the road signs and markings. SIGNS Some signs vary from country to country. But more and more African countries have now adopted the international standard signs. Their meanings are given below. THE SHAPES OF SIGNS There are three main types of signs — those giving orders, those that warn, and those that inform. Each type has a different shape. Circles give ordersTriangles warnRectangles inform 884.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSSIGNS GIVING ORDERS These signs are usually circular. Signs with red circles are mostly prohibitive. 894.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE SIGNS GIVING ORDERS 904.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE SIGNS GIVING ORDERS 914.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE SIGNS GIVING ORDERS Signs with blue circles but no red border are mostly compulsory. 924.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE SIGNS GIVING ORDERS WARNING SIGNS Warning signs are mostly triangular. In soe countries, the background may be yellow. 934.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE WARNING SIGNS 944.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE WARNING SIGNS 954.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSMORE WARNING SIGNS 964.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSINFORMATION SIGNS These signs are mainly rectangular. 974.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSROAD MARKINGS Road markings are usually painted white or yellow. They may give orders or warnings. ROAD MARKINGS ACROSS THE CARRIAGEWAY STOP lines. STOP lines are usually found at dangerous junctions where it is difficult to see along the major road. You must STOP and GIVE WAY to traffic on the major road. GIVE WAY lines. GIVE WAY lines mean that you must GIVE WAY to traffic on the major road.You need not stop if you are sure that it is safe to enter the major road. 984.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSROAD MARKINGS ALONG THE CARRIAGEWAY. Lines along the carriageway show lane, centre line or hazard markings. The longer the line, the greater the hazard. 994.2ROAD SIGNS AND MARKINGSContinuous single or double centre line markings mean extreme danger. Do not cross or straddle these lines. If the line nearest to you is broken, you may cross it providing it is safe to do so. 1004.3HAZARDOUS LOAD LABELSIn many countries, vehicles carrying dangerous goods are required by law to display hazard information panels. The panel illustrated opposite is for an inflammable gas. The codes in the boxes give important information about: the equipment needed to deal with any spillage or fire, the chemical being carried, and the number to telephone in an emergency. If you have an accident with a vehicle carrying a dangerous load, make sure the emergency services know what the load is and its code numbers, if given. Diamond symbols indicating other risks are shown opposite. REMEMBER:If a spillage occurs - keep well away and inform the emergency services. 101 4.4 INTERNATIONAL DRIVING Driving in other countries is not difficult providing certain basic steps are followed. You should remember that, when in another country, you are totally responsible for yourself, your vehicle and its load. Any failure to follow local regulations may mean an on-the-spot fine. Serious breaches of the law can result in your vehicle being impounded and your being imprisoned. DOCUMENTS You will need certain extra documents to travel outside your own country. These cover you, your vehicle, and its load. Long delays often occur at Customs Posts. If you do not have all the correct documents, you may be delayed even longer, fined, or turned back. Not all the documents listed below will be needed for every foreign trip. If in doubt, check with the Embassy or Consulate of the country concerned. YOU Passport and Visas. Make sure that your passport is valid and contains any necessary visas. International Driving Licence - It is required in countries where your national licence is not acceptable. Always carry your HGV licence as well. Insurance Certificate - It must be valid for travel abroad. 102 4.4 INTERNATIONAL DRIVING Vaccination Certificate - It gives the necessary proof that you have been protected against various infectious diseases such as yellow fever or cholera. YOUR VEHICLE Customs Documents - Normally, you will need permission to import your vehicle temporarily into another country. This avoids the need to pay duty on the vehicle. The certificate may also be known as a “Carnet de Passage en Douane” or a “Triptyque”. Authority to Drive - It is useful to carry a written letter of authority from your company allowing you to take the vehicle abroad. International Registration Plate - It identifies the country of origin of your vehicle and must be fixed on the back of the vehicle where it is clearly visible. YOUR LOAD Some countries have strict rules about what dangerous goods may be imported. You may need a certificate giving permission for you to bring your load into the country. DRIVING Make sure that you know the rules of the road for all the countries to be visited. Different countries have different laws and it is easy to break them without knowing unless you are prepared. Take special care at road junctions. The rules on priority may be different. Make sure that you know the speed limits. Keep below them at all times. 103 4.4 INTERNATIONAL DRIVING Most traffic signs are the same in almost all countries. Check if any special signs are used and make sure that you know what they mean. Look out for signs restricting heavy goods vehicles. In some countries, HGVs are not allowed to travel at certain times or on certain roads. EMERGENCIES Never travel abroad without knowing how to cope in an emergency. Take with you details of your country’s embassy or consulate and any agent your company has in the country you are visiting. Make sure that you know what to do in case of an accident or breakdown. Don’t wait until it happens before finding out. REMEMBER: Before you leave: Make sure that you have all the necessary documents and that they are valid for the country being visited. 104 This page has intentionally been left blank. 105 INDEX Accidents 73-8 1 Air lines 24 Airway 76-78 Alcohol 5,86 Anti-theft devices 17 Bad driving conditions 63-65 Bends 34, 49, 55, 72 Bleeding 76, 79 Blind spots 29 Box loads 20 Brakes 16, 23, 25, 48, 66, 68 Braking 49-50 Braking distance 47-48 Biaking emergency 50 Breakdowns 71-72 Breath ing 77-78 Bridges 55, 63, 67 Cab 8, 17 Chains 20 Clamps 20 Consciousness 76, 79 Controls of vehic1e 23 Corners 35 Coupling of trailer 27 Crests 35, 55, 72 Dangerous goods labels 100 Dazzle 62-63, 86 Documents 1-3, 100-102 Doors 25 Drawbar 24, 26 Driving hours 7 Driving licences 1, 83,101 106 INDEX Driving position 8 Drugs 6,7,86 Dust 64 Electrics 24 Exhaust system 68, 84 Eyesight 4, 83 Fatigue 7-8, 48 Fifth wheel 24, 26 Fire extinguisher 12 First aid 76-81 First aid kit 11 Fitness to drive 4-8 Flooded roads 9 Following distances 45-46 Fords 68 Gears 23, 33, 38, 40, 49, 66 Hazard warning lights 71 Hazardous loads 10, 18,54, 100 Headlights 59, 61, 63, 65, 84 High-sided vehicles 63 Hills 9, 66 Horn 16, 23, 36, 84 Ignition 23 Indicators 16, 23-24, 30-33, Insurance 2, 84, 101 International driving 101-103 Journey times 10 Junctions 36-41, 56, 102 107 INDEX Kiss of life 77-78 Law 83-86 Level crossing 56, 69 Lights 16, 54, 59-63, 65, 84 Livestock 22 Load safety checks 18-22, 72, 84 Long vehicles 21,34,37,40, 51 Medicines 6-7 Moving off 33 Mirrors 29, 33, 37, 39-40, 42-44, 51, 58-59, 84 Narrow roads 9 Night driving 7, 54, 59-62 Oil check 15 Overtaking 29, 55-58 Parking 53-54 Parking lights 54, 60, 85 Pedestrian crossing 56 Plating 18 Positioning 34-35, 37, 40, 43-44 Priority at junctIons 36 Rain 65 Reaction time 47-48 Recovery position 80 Refuelling 10 Registration plates 17,25 Reversing 51-52 River crossing 68 Road markings 55, 87, 97-99 108 INDEX Road signs 55, 87-96 Road surface 48, 63, 65 Roping loads 19-20 Rotindabouts 42-44 Route planning 9-10 Safety checks 13-22 Safety equipment 11-12 Seat adjustment 8, 23 Signalling 30-32, 33, 37, 39-40, 43-44, 57-58 Single-lane roads 67 Skidding 49 Speedometer 84 Stopping distances 47-48 Sun 63 Tankers 22 Tipper vehicles 21 Traffic regulations 83-86 Trailers 24-27 Turning left 40-41, 43 Turning right 37-39, 44 Two second rule 46 Tyres 13-14, 48, 63, 84 Uncoupling 26 Unmade roads 64 Vehicle loads 18-22 Vehicle tax 2, 84 Visibility 29, 59-65 Vision 4 Warning plates 17,25 109 INDEX Warning signs 36 Warning triangle 11, 71, 73 Water levels 15 Wheel nuts 15 Wide load 21, 51 Wind 63, 67 Windows 8, 16, 59 Windscreen washers 16, 84 Windscreen wipers 16, 65, 84